J. Michael Dunn
J. Michael Dunn (June 19, 1941 – April 5, 2021) was Oscar Ewing Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, Professor Emeritus of Informatics and Computer Science, was twice chair of the Philosophy Department, was Executive Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, and was founding dean of the School of Informatics (now the Luddy School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering) at Indiana University. Early life and education Dunn was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana. He went to high school in Lafayette, Indiana, where he worked in Purdue Biology laboratories after school and summers. He was the first in his family to go to college. He obtained an A.B. in Philosophy from Oberlin College and a Ph.D. in Philosophy (Logic) from the University of Pittsburgh, where he wrote his dissertation, ''The Algebra of Intensional Logics.'' Career He taught at Wayne State University and at Yale University before coming to Indiana University Bloomington in 1969, from which he retired in 2007. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logic
Logic is the study of correct reasoning. It includes both formal and informal logic. Formal logic is the science of deductively valid inferences or of logical truths. It is a formal science investigating how conclusions follow from premises in a topicneutral way. When used as a countable noun, the term "a logic" refers to a logical formal system that articulates a proof system. Formal logic contrasts with informal logic, which is associated with informal fallacies, critical thinking, and argumentation theory. While there is no general agreement on how formal and informal logic are to be distinguished, one prominent approach associates their difference with whether the studied arguments are expressed in formal or informal languages. Logic plays a central role in multiple fields, such as philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics. Logic studies arguments, which consist of a set of premises together with a conclusion. Premises and conclusions are usually unde ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

University Of Oxford
, mottoeng = The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (2019) , budget = £2.145 billion (2019–20) , chancellor = The Lord Patten of Barnes , vice_chancellor = Louise Richardson , students = 24,515 (2019) , undergrad = 11,955 , postgrad = 12,010 , other = 541 (2017) , city = Oxford , country = England , coordinates = , campus_type = University town , athletics_affiliations = Blue (university sport) , logo_size = 250px , website = , logo = University of Oxford.svg , colours = Oxford Blue , faculty = 6,995 (2020) , academic_affiliations = , The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subjective Probability
Bayesian probability is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantification of a personal belief. The Bayesian interpretation of probability can be seen as an extension of propositional logic that enables reasoning with hypotheses; that is, with propositions whose truth or falsity is unknown. In the Bayesian view, a probability is assigned to a hypothesis, whereas under frequentist inference, a hypothesis is typically tested without being assigned a probability. Bayesian probability belongs to the category of evidential probabilities; to evaluate the probability of a hypothesis, the Bayesian probabilist specifies a prior probability. This, in turn, is then updated to a posterior probability in the light of new, relevant data (evidence). The Bayesian interpretation provides a standard set of procedures and formul ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantum Computing
Quantum computing is a type of computation whose operations can harness the phenomena of quantum mechanics, such as superposition, interference, and entanglement. Devices that perform quantum computations are known as quantum computers. Though current quantum computers may be too small to outperform usual (classical) computers for practical applications, larger realizations are believed to be capable of solving certain computational problems, such as integer factorization (which underlies RSA encryption), substantially faster than classical computers. The study of quantum computing is a subfield of quantum information science. There are several models of quantum computation with the most widely used being quantum circuits. Other models include the quantum Turing machine, quantum annealing, and adiabatic quantum computation. Most models are based on the quantum bit, or "qubit", which is somewhat analogous to the bit in classical computation. A qubit can be in a 1 or 0 quantum ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantum Logic
In the mathematical study of logic and the physical analysis of quantum foundations, quantum logic is a set of rules for manipulation of propositions inspired by the structure of quantum theory. The field takes as its starting point an observation of Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann, that the structure of experimental tests in classical mechanics forms a Boolean algebra, but the structure of experimental tests in quantum mechanics forms a much more complicated structure. Quantum logic has been proposed as the correct logic for propositional inference generally, most notably by the philosopher Hilary Putnam, at least at one point in his career. This thesis was an important ingredient in Putnam's 1968 paper " Is Logic Empirical?" in which he analysed the epistemological status of the rules of propositional logic. Modern philosophers reject quantum logic as a basis for reasoning, because it lacks a material conditional; a common alternative is the system of linear log ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alan Ross Anderson
Alan Ross Anderson (1925–1973) was an American logician and professor of philosophy at Yale University and the University of Pittsburgh. A frequent collaborator with Nuel Belnap, Anderson was instrumental in the development of relevance logic and deontic logic. Anderson died of cancer in 1973. Relevance logic Anderson believed that the conclusion of a valid inference ought to have something to do with (i.e. be ''relevant'' to) the premises. Formally, he captured this " relevance condition" with the principle that : ''A'' entails ''B'' only if ''A'' and ''B'' share at least one nonlogical constant. As simple as this idea appears, implementing it in a formal system requires a radical departure from the semantics of classical logic. Anderson and Belnap (with contributions from J. Michael Dunn, Kit Fine, Alasdair Urquhart, Robert K. Meyer, Anil Gupta, and others) explored the formal consequences of the relevance condition in great detail in their influential ''E ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Substructural Logic
In logic, a substructural logic is a logic lacking one of the usual structural rules (e.g. of classical and intuitionistic logic), such as weakening, contraction, exchange or associativity. Two of the more significant substructural logics are relevance logic and linear logic. Examples In a sequent calculus, one writes each line of a proof as :\Gamma\vdash\Sigma. Here the structural rules are rules for rewriting the LHS of the sequent, denoted Γ, initially conceived of as a string (sequence) of propositions. The standard interpretation of this string is as conjunction: we expect to read :\mathcal A,\mathcal B \vdash\mathcal C as the sequent notation for :(''A'' and ''B'') implies ''C''. Here we are taking the RHS Σ to be a single proposition ''C'' (which is the intuitionistic style of sequent); but everything applies equally to the general case, since all the manipulations are taking place to the left of the turnstile symbol \vdash. Since conjunction is a commuta ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Relevance Logic
Relevance logic, also called relevant logic, is a kind of nonclassical logic requiring the antecedent and consequent of implications to be relevantly related. They may be viewed as a family of substructural or modal logics. It is generally, but not universally, called ''relevant logic'' by British and, especially, Australian logicians, and ''relevance logic'' by American logicians. Relevance logic aims to capture aspects of implication that are ignored by the " material implication" operator in classical truthfunctional logic, namely the notion of relevance between antecedent and conditional of a true implication. This idea is not new: C. I. Lewis was led to invent modal logic, and specifically strict implication, on the grounds that classical logic grants paradoxes of material implication such as the principle that a falsehood implies any proposition. Hence "if I'm a donkey, then two and two is four" is true when translated as a material implication, yet it seems intuiti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

American University
The American University (AU or American) is a private federally chartered research university in Washington, D.C. Its main campus spans 90 acres (36 ha) on Ward Circle, mostly in the Spring Valley neighborhood of Northwest D.C. AU was chartered by an Act of Congress in 1893 at the urging of Methodist bishop John Fletcher Hurst, who sought to create an institution that would promote public service, internationalism, and pragmatic idealism. AU broke ground in 1902, opened as a graduate education institution in 1914, and admitted its first undergraduates in 1925. Although affiliated with the United Methodist Church, religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission. American University has eight schools and colleges: the School of International Service, College of Arts and Sciences, Kogod School of Business, School of Communication, School of Professional and Extended Studies, School of Public Affairs, School of Education, and the Washington College of Law (WCL). It h ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Journal Of Philosophical Logic
The ''Journal of Philosophical Logic'' is a bimonthly peerreviewed academic journal covering all aspects of logic. It was established in 1972 and is published by Springer Science+Business Media. The editorsinchief are Rosalie Iemhoff (Utrecht University), Reinhard Muskens (University of Amsterdam), and Kai Wehmeier (University of California, Irvine). Abstracting and indexing The journal is abstracted and indexed in: *Arts and Humanities Citation Index *Current Contents/Arts & Humanities *EBSCO Information Services, EBSCO databases *International Bibliography of Periodical Literature *Linguistic Bibliography, Linguistic Bibliography/Bibliographie Linguistique *Modern Language Association Database *Philosopher's Index *ProQuest, ProQuest databases *Scopus *Zentralblatt MATH References External links * {{Philosophy journals, state=collapsed Logic journals Englishlanguage journals Publications established in 1972 Springer Science+Business Media academic journals Bimonthly ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Journal Of Symbolic Logic
The '' Journal of Symbolic Logic'' is a peerreviewed mathematics journal published quarterly by Association for Symbolic Logic. It was established in 1936 and covers mathematical logic. The journal is indexed by ''Mathematical Reviews'', Zentralblatt MATH, and Scopus. Its 2009 MCQ was 0.28, and its 2009 impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly mean number of citations of articles published in the last two years in a given journal, as i ... was 0.631. External links * Mathematics journals Publications established in 1936 Multilingual journals Quarterly journals Association for Symbolic Logic academic journals Logic journals Cambridge University Press academic journals {{mathjournalstub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Association For Symbolic Logic
The Association for Symbolic Logic (ASL) is an international organization of specialists in mathematical logic and philosophical logic. The ASL was founded in 1936, and its first president was Alonzo Church. The current president of the ASL is Julia F. Knight. Publications The ASL publishes books and academic journals. Its three official journals are: * ''Journal of Symbolic Logic'(website)– publishes research in all areas of mathematical logic. Founded in 1936, . * ''Bulletin of Symbolic Logic'(website)– publishes primarily expository articles and reviews. Founded in 1995, . * ''Review of Symbolic Logic'(website)– publishes research relating to logic, philosophy, science, and their interactions. Founded in 2008, . In addition, the ASL has a sponsored journal: * ''Journal of Logic and Analysis'(website)– publishes research on the interactions between mathematical logic and pure and applied analysis. Founded in 2009 as an openaccess successor to the Springer j ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 