Irreflexive Relation
In mathematics, a binary relation ''R'' on a set ''X'' is reflexive if it relates every element of ''X'' to itself. An example of a reflexive relation is the relation " is equal to" on the set of real numbers, since every real number is equal to itself. A reflexive relation is said to have the reflexive property or is said to possess reflexivity. Along with symmetry and transitivity, reflexivity is one of three properties defining equivalence relations. Definitions Let R be a binary relation on a set X, which by definition is just a subset of X \times X. For any x, y \in X, the notation x R y means that (x, y) \in R while "not x R y" means that (x, y) \not\in R. The relation R is called if x R x for every x \in X or equivalently, if \operatorname_X \subseteq R where \operatorname_X := \ denotes the identity relation on X. The of R is the union R \cup \operatorname_X, which can equivalently be defined as the smallest (with respect to \subseteq) reflexive relation on X ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetric Closure
In mathematics, the symmetric closure of a binary relation R on a set X is the smallest symmetric relation on X that contains R. For example, if X is a set of airports and xRy means "there is a direct flight from airport x to airport y", then the symmetric closure of R is the relation "there is a direct flight either from x to y or from y to x". Or, if X is the set of humans and R is the relation 'parent of', then the symmetric closure of R is the relation "x is a parent or a child of y". Definition The symmetric closure S of a relation R on a set X is given by S = R \cup \. In other words, the symmetric closure of R is the union of R with its converse relation, R^. See also * * {{annotated link, Reflexive closure References * Franz Baader and Tobias Nipkow Tobias Nipkow (born 1958) is a German computer scientist. Career Nipkow received his Diplom (MSc) in computer science from the Department of Computer Science of the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt in 1982, and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Undergraduate Texts In Mathematics
Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics (UTM) (ISSN 01726056) is a series of undergraduatelevel textbooks in mathematics published by SpringerVerlag. The books in this series, like the other SpringerVerlag mathematics series, are small yellow books of a standard size. The books in this series tend to be written at a more elementary level than the similar Graduate Texts in Mathematics series, although there is a fair amount of overlap between the two series in terms of material covered and difficulty level. There is no SpringerVerlag numbering of the books like in the Graduate Texts in Mathematics Graduate Texts in Mathematics (GTM) (ISSN 00725285) is a series of graduatelevel textbooks in mathematics published by SpringerVerlag. The books in this series, like the other SpringerVerlag mathematics series, are yellow books of a standard s ... series. The books are numbered here by year of publication. List of books # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Philosophical Logic
Understood in a narrow sense, philosophical logic is the area of logic that studies the application of logical methods to philosophical problems, often in the form of extended logical systems like modal logic. Some theorists conceive philosophical logic in a wider sense as the study of the scope and nature of logic in general. In this sense, philosophical logic can be seen as identical to the philosophy of logic, which includes additional topics like how to define logic or a discussion of the fundamental concepts of logic. The current article treats philosophical logic in the narrow sense, in which it forms one field of inquiry within the philosophy of logic. An important issue for philosophical logic is the question of how to classify the great variety of nonclassical logical systems, many of which are of rather recent origin. One form of classification often found in the literature is to distinguish between extended logics and deviant logics. Logic itself can be defined as the s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

A053763
A, or a, is the first letter and the first vowel of the Latin alphabet, used in the modern English alphabet, the alphabets of other western European languages and others worldwide. Its name in English is ''a'' (pronounced ), plural ''aes''. It is similar in shape to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the doublestorey a and singlestorey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type. In English grammar, " a", and its variant " an", are indefinite articles. History The earliest certain ancestor of "A" is aleph (also written 'aleph), the first letter of the Phoenician alphabet, which consisted entirely of consonants (for that reason, it is also called an abjad to distinguish it fro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Integer
An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign (−1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of mathematics, the set of integers is often denoted by the boldface or blackboard bold \mathbb. The set of natural numbers \mathbb is a subset of \mathbb, which in turn is a subset of the set of all rational numbers \mathbb, itself a subset of the real numbers \mathbb. Like the natural numbers, \mathbb is countably infinite. An integer may be regarded as a real number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, , and are not. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers. In algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes qualified as rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Relation
In mathematics, Euclidean relations are a class of binary relations that formalize " Axiom 1" in Euclid's ''Elements'': "Magnitudes which are equal to the same are equal to each other." Definition A binary relation ''R'' on a set ''X'' is Euclidean (sometimes called right Euclidean) if it satisfies the following: for every ''a'', ''b'', ''c'' in ''X'', if ''a'' is related to ''b'' and ''c'', then ''b'' is related to ''c''.. To write this in predicate logic: :\forall a, b, c\in X\,(a\,R\, b \land a \,R\, c \to b \,R\, c). Dually, a relation ''R'' on ''X'' is left Euclidean if for every ''a'', ''b'', ''c'' in ''X'', if ''b'' is related to ''a'' and ''c'' is related to ''a'', then ''b'' is related to ''c'': :\forall a, b, c\in X\,(b\,R\, a \land c \,R\, a \to b \,R\, c). Properties # Due to the commutativity of ∧ in the definition's antecedent, ''aRb'' ∧ ''aRc'' even implies ''bRc'' ∧ ''cRb'' when ''R'' is right Euclidean. Similarly, ''bRa'' ∧ ''cRa'' implies ''bRc' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Natural Number
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). Numbers used for counting are called ''Cardinal number, cardinal numbers'', and numbers used for ordering are called ''Ordinal number, ordinal numbers''. Natural numbers are sometimes used as labels, known as ''nominal numbers'', having none of the properties of numbers in a mathematical sense (e.g. sports Number (sports), jersey numbers). Some definitions, including the standard ISO/IEC 80000, ISO 800002, begin the natural numbers with , corresponding to the nonnegative integers , whereas others start with , corresponding to the positive integers Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, while in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers). The natural ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Even Number
In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer of whether it is even or odd. An integer is even if it is a multiple of two, and odd if it is not.. For example, −4, 0, 82 are even because \begin 2 \cdot 2 &= 4 \\ 0 \cdot 2 &= 0 \\ 41 \cdot 2 &= 82 \end By contrast, −3, 5, 7, 21 are odd numbers. The above definition of parity applies only to integer numbers, hence it cannot be applied to numbers like 1/2 or 4.201. See the section "Higher mathematics" below for some extensions of the notion of parity to a larger class of "numbers" or in other more general settings. Even and odd numbers have opposite parities, e.g., 22 (even number) and 13 (odd number) have opposite parities. In particular, the parity of zero is even. Any two consecutive integers have opposite parity. A number (i.e., integer) expressed in the decimal numeral system is even or odd according to whether its last digit is even or odd. That is, if the last digit is 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9, then it is odd; otherw ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coprime
In mathematics, two integers and are coprime, relatively prime or mutually prime if the only positive integer that is a divisor of both of them is 1. Consequently, any prime number that divides does not divide , and vice versa. This is equivalent to their greatest common divisor (GCD) being 1. One says also '' is prime to '' or '' is coprime with ''. The numbers 8 and 9 are coprime, despite the fact that neither considered individually is a prime number, since 1 is their only common divisor. On the other hand, 6 and 9 are not coprime, because they are both divisible by 3. The numerator and denominator of a reduced fraction are coprime, by definition. Notation and testing Standard notations for relatively prime integers and are: and . In their 1989 textbook ''Concrete Mathematics'', Ronald Graham, Donald Knuth, and Oren Patashnik proposed that the notation a\perp b be used to indicate that and are relatively prime and that the term "prime" be used instead of coprime (as ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Divisor
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some integer to produce n. In this case, one also says that n is a multiple of m. An integer n is divisible or evenly divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n; this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder. Definition An integer is divisible by a nonzero integer if there exists an integer such that n=km. This is written as :m\mid n. Other ways of saying the same thing are that divides , is a divisor of , is a factor of , and is a multiple of . If does not divide , then the notation is m\not\mid n. Usually, is required to be nonzero, but is allowed to be zero. With this convention, m \mid 0 for every nonzero integer . Some definitions omit the requirement that m be nonzero. General Divisors can be negative as well as positive, although sometimes the term is restricted to positive divisors. For example, there are six divisors of 4; they ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subset
In mathematics, Set (mathematics), set ''A'' is a subset of a set ''B'' if all Element (mathematics), elements of ''A'' are also elements of ''B''; ''B'' is then a superset of ''A''. It is possible for ''A'' and ''B'' to be equal; if they are unequal, then ''A'' is a proper subset of ''B''. The relationship of one set being a subset of another is called inclusion (or sometimes containment). ''A'' is a subset of ''B'' may also be expressed as ''B'' includes (or contains) ''A'' or ''A'' is included (or contained) in ''B''. A ''k''subset is a subset with ''k'' elements. The subset relation defines a partial order on sets. In fact, the subsets of a given set form a Boolean algebra (structure), Boolean algebra under the subset relation, in which the join and meet are given by Intersection (set theory), intersection and Union (set theory), union, and the subset relation itself is the Inclusion (Boolean algebra), Boolean inclusion relation. Definition If ''A'' and ''B'' are sets and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 