Invariant Subspace
In mathematics, an invariant subspace of a linear mapping ''T'' : ''V'' → ''V '' i.e. from some vector space ''V'' to itself, is a subspace ''W'' of ''V'' that is preserved by ''T''; that is, ''T''(''W'') ⊆ ''W''. General description Consider a linear mapping T :T: W \to W. An invariant subspace W of T has the property that all vectors \mathbf \in W are transformed by T into vectors also contained in W. This can be stated as :\mathbf \in W \implies T(\mathbf) \in W. Trivial examples of invariant subspaces * \mathbb^n: Since T maps every vector in \mathbb^n into \mathbb^n. * \: Since a linear map has to map 0 \mapsto 0. 1dimensional invariant subspace ''U'' A basis of a 1dimensional space is simply a nonzero vector \mathbf. Consequently, any vector \mathbf \in U can be represented as \lambda \mathbf where \lambda is a scalar. If we represent T by a matrix A then, for U to be an invariant subspace it must satisfy : \forall \mathbf \in U \; \exists \alpha \in ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fixed Point (mathematics)
A fixed point (sometimes shortened to fixpoint, also known as an invariant point) is a value that does not change under a given transformation. Specifically, in mathematics, a fixed point of a function is an element that is mapped to itself by the function. In physics, the term fixed point can refer to a temperature that can be used as a reproducible reference point, usually defined by a phase change or triple point. Fixed point of a function Formally, is a fixed point of a function if belongs to both the domain and the codomain of , and . For example, if is defined on the real numbers by f(x) = x^2  3 x + 4, then 2 is a fixed point of , because . Not all functions have fixed points: for example, , has no fixed points, since is never equal to for any real number. In graphical terms, a fixed point means the point is on the line , or in other words the graph of has a point in common with that line. Fixedpoint iteration In numerical analysis, ''fixedpoint iter ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Per Enflo
Per H. Enflo (; born 20 May 1944) is a Swedish mathematician working primarily in functional analysis, a field in which he solved problems that had been considered fundamental. Three of these problems had been open for more than forty years: * The basis problem and the approximation problem and later * the invariant subspace problem for Banach spaces. In solving these problems, Enflo developed new techniques which were then used by other researchers in functional analysis and operator theory for years. Some of Enflo's research has been important also in other mathematical fields, such as number theory, and in computer science, especially computer algebra and approximation algorithms. Enflo works at Kent State University, where he holds the title of University Professor. Enflo has earlier held positions at the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science at the University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, École Polytechnique, (Paris) and The Royal Institute of Techn ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Invariant Subspace Problem
In the field of mathematics known as functional analysis, the invariant subspace problem is a partially unresolved problem asking whether every bounded operator on a complex Banach space sends some nontrivial closed subspace to itself. Many variants of the problem have been solved, by restricting the class of bounded operators considered or by specifying a particular class of Banach spaces. The problem is still open for separable Hilbert spaces (in other words, each example, found so far, of an operator with no nontrivial invariant subspaces is an operator that acts on a Banach space that is not isomorphic to a separable Hilbert space). History The problem seems to have been stated in the mid1900s after work by Beurling and von Neumann,. who found (but never published) a positive solution for the case of compact operators. It was then posed by Paul Halmos for the case of operators T such that T^2 is compact. This was resolved affirmatively, for the more general class of polyn ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Banach Space
In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced ) is a complete normed vector space. Thus, a Banach space is a vector space with a metric that allows the computation of vector length and distance between vectors and is complete in the sense that a Cauchy sequence of vectors always converges to a welldefined limit that is within the space. Banach spaces are named after the Polish mathematician Stefan Banach, who introduced this concept and studied it systematically in 1920–1922 along with Hans Hahn and Eduard Helly. Maurice René Fréchet was the first to use the term "Banach space" and Banach in turn then coined the term "Fréchet space." Banach spaces originally grew out of the study of function spaces by Hilbert, Fréchet, and Riesz earlier in the century. Banach spaces play a central role in functional analysis. In other areas of analysis, the spaces under study are often Banach spaces. Definition A Banach space is a complete norme ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bounded Operator
In functional analysis and operator theory, a bounded linear operator is a linear transformation L : X \to Y between topological vector spaces (TVSs) X and Y that maps bounded subsets of X to bounded subsets of Y. If X and Y are normed vector spaces (a special type of TVS), then L is bounded if and only if there exists some M > 0 such that for all x \in X, \, Lx\, _Y \leq M \, x\, _X. The smallest such M is called the operator norm of L and denoted by \, L\, . A bounded operator between normed spaces is continuous and vice versa. The concept of a bounded linear operator has been extended from normed spaces to all topological vector spaces. Outside of functional analysis, when a function f : X \to Y is called " bounded" then this usually means that its image f(X) is a bounded subset of its codomain. A linear map has this property if and only if it is identically 0. Consequently, in functional analysis, when a linear operator is called "bounded" then it is never meant in this a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hilbert Space
In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow generalizing the methods of linear algebra and calculus from (finitedimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinitedimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as function spaces. Formally, a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product that defines a distance function for which the space is a complete metric space. The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point of view in the first decade of the 20th century by David Hilbert, Erhard Schmidt, and Frigyes Riesz. They are indispensable tools in the theories of partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, Fourier analysis (which includes applications to signal processing and heat transfer), and ergodic theory (which forms the mathematical underpinning of thermodynamics). John von Neumann coined the term ''Hilbert space'' for the abstract concept that under ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projection Operator
In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself (an endomorphism) such that P\circ P=P. That is, whenever P is applied twice to any vector, it gives the same result as if it were applied once (i.e. P is idempotent). It leaves its image unchanged. This definition of "projection" formalizes and generalizes the idea of graphical projection. One can also consider the effect of a projection on a geometrical object by examining the effect of the projection on points in the object. Definitions A projection on a vector space V is a linear operator P : V \to V such that P^2 = P. When V has an inner product and is complete (i.e. when V is a Hilbert space) the concept of orthogonality can be used. A projection P on a Hilbert space V is called an orthogonal projection if it satisfies \langle P \mathbf x, \mathbf y \rangle = \langle \mathbf x, P \mathbf y \rangle for all \mathbf x, \mathbf y \in V. A projection on a Hilbert ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direct Sum Of Vector Spaces
In abstract algebra, the direct sum is a construction which combines several modules into a new, larger module. The direct sum of modules is the smallest module which contains the given modules as submodules with no "unnecessary" constraints, making it an example of a coproduct. Contrast with the direct product, which is the dual notion. The most familiar examples of this construction occur when considering vector spaces (modules over a field) and abelian groups (modules over the ring Z of integers). The construction may also be extended to cover Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces. See the article decomposition of a module for a way to write a module as a direct sum of submodules. Construction for vector spaces and abelian groups We give the construction first in these two cases, under the assumption that we have only two objects. Then we generalize to an arbitrary family of arbitrary modules. The key elements of the general construction are more clearly identified by conside ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subrepresentation
In representation theory, a subrepresentation of a representation (\pi, V) of a group ''G'' is a representation (\pi, _W, W) such that ''W'' is a vector subspace of ''V'' and \pi, _W(g) = \pi(g), _W. A nonzero finitedimensional representation always contains a nonzero subrepresentation that is irreducible, the fact seen by induction Induction, Inducible or Inductive may refer to: Biology and medicine * Labor induction (birth/pregnancy) * Induction chemotherapy, in medicine * Induced stem cells, stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell t ... on dimension. This fact is generally false for infinitedimensional representations. If (\pi, V) is a representation of ''G'', then there is the trivial subrepresentation: :V^G = \. References * Representation theory {{abstractalgebrastub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group (mathematics)
In mathematics, a group is a Set (mathematics), set and an Binary operation, operation that combines any two Element (mathematics), elements of the set to produce a third element of the set, in such a way that the operation is Associative property, associative, an identity element exists and every element has an Inverse element, inverse. These three axioms hold for Number#Main classification, number systems and many other mathematical structures. For example, the integers together with the addition operation form a group. The concept of a group and the axioms that define it were elaborated for handling, in a unified way, essential structural properties of very different mathematical entities such as numbers, geometric shapes and polynomial roots. Because the concept of groups is ubiquitous in numerous areas both within and outside mathematics, some authors consider it as a central organizing principle of contemporary mathematics. In geometry groups arise naturally in the study of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Group Representation
In the mathematical field of representation theory, group representations describe abstract groups in terms of bijective linear transformations of a vector space to itself (i.e. vector space automorphisms); in particular, they can be used to represent group elements as invertible matrices so that the group operation can be represented by matrix multiplication. In chemistry, a group representation can relate mathematical group elements to symmetric rotations and reflections of molecules. Representations of groups are important because they allow many grouptheoretic problems to be reduced to problems in linear algebra, which is well understood. They are also important in physics because, for example, they describe how the symmetry group of a physical system affects the solutions of equations describing that system. The term ''representation of a group'' is also used in a more general sense to mean any "description" of a group as a group of transformations of some mathematical o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 