Index Of A Subgroup
In mathematics, specifically group theory, the index of a subgroup ''H'' in a group ''G'' is the number of left cosets of ''H'' in ''G'', or equivalently, the number of right cosets of ''H'' in ''G''. The index is denoted , G:H, or :H/math> or (G:H). Because ''G'' is the disjoint union of the left cosets and because each left coset has the same size as ''H'', the index is related to the orders of the two groups by the formula :, G, = , G:H, , H, (interpret the quantities as cardinal numbers if some of them are infinite). Thus the index , G:H, measures the "relative sizes" of ''G'' and ''H''. For example, let G = \Z be the group of integers under addition, and let H = 2\Z be the subgroup consisting of the even integers. Then 2\Z has two cosets in \Z, namely the set of even integers and the set of odd integers, so the index , \Z:2\Z, is 2. More generally, , \Z:n\Z, = n for any positive integer ''n''. When ''G'' is finite, the formula may be written as , G:H, = , G, /, H, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set (mathematics)
A set is the mathematical model for a collection of different things; a set contains '' elements'' or ''members'', which can be mathematical objects of any kind: numbers, symbols, points in space, lines, other geometrical shapes, variables, or even other sets. The set with no element is the empty set; a set with a single element is a singleton. A set may have a finite number of elements or be an infinite set. Two sets are equal if they have precisely the same elements. Sets are ubiquitous in modern mathematics. Indeed, set theory, more specifically Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, has been the standard way to provide rigorous foundations for all branches of mathematics since the first half of the 20th century. History The concept of a set emerged in mathematics at the end of the 19th century. The German word for set, ''Menge'', was coined by Bernard Bolzano in his work ''Paradoxes of the Infinite''. Georg Cantor, one of the founders of set theory, gave the following defin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Symmetric Group
In abstract algebra, the symmetric group defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions. In particular, the finite symmetric group \mathrm_n defined over a finite set of n symbols consists of the permutations that can be performed on the n symbols. Since there are n! (n factorial) such permutation operations, the order (number of elements) of the symmetric group \mathrm_n is n!. Although symmetric groups can be defined on infinite sets, this article focuses on the finite symmetric groups: their applications, their elements, their conjugacy classes, a finite presentation, their subgroups, their automorphism groups, and their representation theory. For the remainder of this article, "symmetric group" will mean a symmetric group on a finite set. The symmetric group is important to diverse areas of mathematics such as Galois theory, invariant theory, the representatio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alternating Group
In mathematics, an alternating group is the group of even permutations of a finite set. The alternating group on a set of elements is called the alternating group of degree , or the alternating group on letters and denoted by or Basic properties For , the group A''n'' is the commutator subgroup of the symmetric group S''n'' with index 2 and has therefore ''n''!/2 elements. It is the kernel of the signature group homomorphism explained under symmetric group. The group A''n'' is abelian if and only if and simple if and only if or . A5 is the smallest nonabelian simple group, having order 60, and the smallest nonsolvable group. The group A4 has the Klein fourgroup V as a proper normal subgroup, namely the identity and the double transpositions , that is the kernel of the surjection of A4 onto . We have the exact sequence . In Galois theory, this map, or rather the corresponding map , corresponds to associating the Lagrange resolvent cubic to a quartic, which allow ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Perfect Group
In mathematics, more specifically in group theory, a group is said to be perfect if it equals its own commutator subgroup, or equivalently, if the group has no nontrivial abelian quotients (equivalently, its abelianization, which is the universal abelian quotient, is trivial). In symbols, a perfect group is one such that ''G''(1) = ''G'' (the commutator subgroup equals the group), or equivalently one such that ''G''ab = (its abelianization is trivial). Examples The smallest (nontrivial) perfect group is the alternating group ''A''5. More generally, any nonabelian simple group is perfect since the commutator subgroup is a normal subgroup with abelian quotient. Conversely, a perfect group need not be simple; for example, the special linear group over the field with 5 elements, SL(2,5) (or the binary icosahedral group, which is isomorphic to it) is perfect but not simple (it has a nontrivial center containing \left(\begin1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1\end\right) = \left(\begin4 & 0 \\ 0 & ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Simple Group
SIMPLE Group Limited is a conglomeration of separately run companies that each has its core area in International Consulting. The core business areas are Legal Services, Fiduciary Activities, Banking Intermediation and Corporate Service. The date of incorporation is listed as 1999 by Companies House of Gibraltar, who class it as a holding company; however it is understood that SIMPLE Group's business and trading activities date to the second part of the 90s, probably as an incorporated body. SIMPLE Group Limited is a conglomerate that cultivate secrecy, they are not listed on any Stock Exchange and the group is owned by a complicated series of offshore trust An offshore trust is a conventional trust that is formed under the laws of an offshore jurisdiction. Generally offshore trusts are similar in nature and effect to their onshore counterparts; they involve a settlor transferring (or 'settling') a ...s. The Sunday Times stated that SIMPLE Group's interests could be eval ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Finite Index
In mathematics, specifically group theory, the index of a subgroup ''H'' in a group ''G'' is the number of left cosets of ''H'' in ''G'', or equivalently, the number of right cosets of ''H'' in ''G''. The index is denoted , G:H, or :H/math> or (G:H). Because ''G'' is the disjoint union of the left cosets and because each left coset has the same size as ''H'', the index is related to the orders of the two groups by the formula :, G, = , G:H, , H, (interpret the quantities as cardinal numbers if some of them are infinite). Thus the index , G:H, measures the "relative sizes" of ''G'' and ''H''. For example, let G = \Z be the group of integers under addition, and let H = 2\Z be the subgroup consisting of the even integers. Then 2\Z has two cosets in \Z, namely the set of even integers and the set of odd integers, so the index , \Z:2\Z, is 2. More generally, , \Z:n\Z, = n for any positive integer ''n''. When ''G'' is finite, the formula may be written as , G:H, = , G, /, H ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Factorial
In mathematics, the factorial of a nonnegative denoted is the product of all positive integers less than or equal The factorial also equals the product of n with the next smaller factorial: \begin n! &= n \times (n1) \times (n2) \times (n3) \times \cdots \times 3 \times 2 \times 1 \\ &= n\times(n1)!\\ \end For example, 5! = 5\times 4! = 5 \times 4 \times 3 \times 2 \times 1 = 120. The value of 0! is 1, according to the convention for an empty product. Factorials have been discovered in several ancient cultures, notably in Indian mathematics in the canonical works of Jain literature, and by Jewish mystics in the Talmudic book '' Sefer Yetzirah''. The factorial operation is encountered in many areas of mathematics, notably in combinatorics, where its most basic use counts the possible distinct sequences – the permutations – of n distinct objects: there In mathematical analysis, factorials are used in power series for the exponential function an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Core (group)
In group theory, a branch of mathematics, a core is any of certain special normal subgroups of a group. The two most common types are the normal core of a subgroup and the ''p''core of a group. The normal core Definition For a group ''G'', the normal core or normal interiorRobinson (1996) p.16 of a subgroup ''H'' is the largest normal subgroup of ''G'' that is contained in ''H'' (or equivalently, the intersection of the conjugates of ''H''). More generally, the core of ''H'' with respect to a subset ''S'' ⊆ ''G'' is the intersection of the conjugates of ''H'' under ''S'', i.e. :\mathrm_S(H) := \bigcap_. Under this more general definition, the normal core is the core with respect to ''S'' = ''G''. The normal core of any normal subgroup is the subgroup itself. Significance Normal cores are important in the context of group actions on sets, where the normal core of the isotropy subgroup of any point acts as the identity on its entire orbit. Thus, i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normalizer
In mathematics, especially group theory, the centralizer (also called commutant) of a subset ''S'' in a group ''G'' is the set of elements \mathrm_G(S) of ''G'' such that each member g \in \mathrm_G(S) commutes with each element of ''S'', or equivalently, such that conjugation by g leaves each element of ''S'' fixed. The normalizer of ''S'' in ''G'' is the set of elements \mathrm_G(S) of ''G'' that satisfy the weaker condition of leaving the set S \subseteq G fixed under conjugation. The centralizer and normalizer of ''S'' are subgroups of ''G''. Many techniques in group theory are based on studying the centralizers and normalizers of suitable subsets ''S''. Suitably formulated, the definitions also apply to semigroups. In ring theory, the centralizer of a subset of a ring is defined with respect to the semigroup (multiplication) operation of the ring. The centralizer of a subset of a ring ''R'' is a subring of ''R''. This article also deals with centralizers and normaliz ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Centralizer
In mathematics, especially group theory, the centralizer (also called commutant) of a subset ''S'' in a group ''G'' is the set of elements \mathrm_G(S) of ''G'' such that each member g \in \mathrm_G(S) commutes with each element of ''S'', or equivalently, such that conjugation by g leaves each element of ''S'' fixed. The normalizer of ''S'' in ''G'' is the set of elements \mathrm_G(S) of ''G'' that satisfy the weaker condition of leaving the set S \subseteq G fixed under conjugation. The centralizer and normalizer of ''S'' are subgroups of ''G''. Many techniques in group theory are based on studying the centralizers and normalizers of suitable subsets ''S''. Suitably formulated, the definitions also apply to semigroups. In ring theory, the centralizer of a subset of a ring is defined with respect to the semigroup (multiplication) operation of the ring. The centralizer of a subset of a ring ''R'' is a subring of ''R''. This article also deals with centralizers and normaliz ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Conjugacy Class
In mathematics, especially group theory, two elements a and b of a group are conjugate if there is an element g in the group such that b = gag^. This is an equivalence relation whose equivalence classes are called conjugacy classes. In other words, each conjugacy class is closed under b = gag^. for all elements g in the group. Members of the same conjugacy class cannot be distinguished by using only the group structure, and therefore share many properties. The study of conjugacy classes of nonabelian groups is fundamental for the study of their structure. For an abelian group, each conjugacy class is a set containing one element (singleton set). Functions that are constant for members of the same conjugacy class are called class functions. Definition Let G be a group. Two elements a, b \in G are conjugate if there exists an element g \in G such that gag^ = b, in which case b is called of a and a is called a conjugate of b. In the case of the general linear group \operatorna ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 