Heyting Algebra
In mathematics, a Heyting algebra (also known as pseudoBoolean algebra) is a bounded lattice (with join and meet operations written ∨ and ∧ and with least element 0 and greatest element 1) equipped with a binary operation ''a'' → ''b'' of ''implication'' such that (''c'' ∧ ''a'') ≤ ''b'' is equivalent to ''c'' ≤ (''a'' → ''b''). From a logical standpoint, ''A'' → ''B'' is by this definition the weakest proposition for which modus ponens, the inference rule ''A'' → ''B'', ''A'' ⊢ ''B'', is sound. Like Boolean algebras, Heyting algebras form a variety axiomatizable with finitely many equations. Heyting algebras were introduced by to formalize intuitionistic logic. As lattices, Heyting algebras are distributive. Every Boolean algebra is a Heyting algebra when ''a'' → ''b'' is defined as ¬''a'' ∨ ''b'', as is every complete distributive lattice satisfying a onesided infinite distributive law when ''a'' → ''b'' is taken to be the supremum of the set of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subobject
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a subobject is, roughly speaking, an object that sits inside another object in the same category. The notion is a generalization of concepts such as subsets from set theory, subgroups from group theory,Mac Lane, p. 126 and subspaces from topology. Since the detailed structure of objects is immaterial in category theory, the definition of subobject relies on a morphism that describes how one object sits inside another, rather than relying on the use of elements. The dual concept to a subobject is a . This generalizes concepts such as quotient sets, quotient groups, quotient spaces, quotient graphs, etc. Definitions In detail, let ''A'' be an object of some category. Given two monomorphisms :u: S \to A \ \text \ v: T\to A with codomain ''A'', we define an equivalence relation by u \equiv v if there exists an isomorphism \phi: S \to T with u = v \circ \phi. Equivalently, we write u \leq v if u factors through ''v''—that is, if t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complement (set Theory)
In set theory, the complement of a set , often denoted by (or ), is the set of elements not in . When all sets in the universe, i.e. all sets under consideration, are considered to be members of a given set , the absolute complement of is the set of elements in that are not in . The relative complement of with respect to a set , also termed the set difference of and , written B \setminus A, is the set of elements in that are not in . Absolute complement Definition If is a set, then the absolute complement of (or simply the complement of ) is the set of elements not in (within a larger set that is implicitly defined). In other words, let be a set that contains all the elements under study; if there is no need to mention , either because it has been previously specified, or it is obvious and unique, then the absolute complement of is the relative complement of in : A^\complement = U \setminus A. Or formally: A^\complement = \. The absolute complement of is u ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pseudocomplement
In mathematics, particularly in order theory, a pseudocomplement is one generalization of the notion of complement. In a lattice ''L'' with bottom element 0, an element ''x'' ∈ ''L'' is said to have a ''pseudocomplement'' if there exists a greatest element ''x''* ∈ ''L'' with the property that ''x'' ∧ ''x''* = 0. More formally, ''x''* = max. The lattice ''L'' itself is called a pseudocomplemented lattice if every element of ''L'' is pseudocomplemented. Every pseudocomplemented lattice is necessarily bounded, i.e. it has a 1 as well. Since the pseudocomplement is unique by definition (if it exists), a pseudocomplemented lattice can be endowed with a unary operation * mapping every element to its pseudocomplement; this structure is sometimes called a ''p''algebra. However this latter term may have other meanings in other areas of mathematics. Properties In a ''p''algebra ''L'', for all x, y \in L: * The map ''x'' ↦ ''x''* is antitone. In particular, 0* = 1 and 1* = 0. * The ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lattice (order)
A lattice is an abstract structure studied in the mathematical subdisciplines of order theory and abstract algebra. It consists of a partially ordered set in which every pair of elements has a unique supremum (also called a least upper bound or join) and a unique infimum (also called a greatest lower bound or meet). An example is given by the power set of a set, partially ordered by inclusion, for which the supremum is the union and the infimum is the intersection. Another example is given by the natural numbers, partially ordered by divisibility, for which the supremum is the least common multiple and the infimum is the greatest common divisor. Lattices can also be characterized as algebraic structures satisfying certain axiomatic identities. Since the two definitions are equivalent, lattice theory draws on both order theory and universal algebra. Semilattices include lattices, which in turn include Heyting and Boolean algebras. These ''latticelike'' structures all admi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Decidability (logic)
In logic, a true/false decision problem is decidable if there exists an effective method for deriving the correct answer. Zerothorder logic (propositional logic) is decidable, whereas firstorder and higherorder logic are not. Logical systems are decidable if membership in their set of logically valid formulas (or theorems) can be effectively determined. A theory (set of sentences closed under logical consequence) in a fixed logical system is decidable if there is an effective method for determining whether arbitrary formulas are included in the theory. Many important problems are undecidable, that is, it has been proven that no effective method for determining membership (returning a correct answer after finite, though possibly very long, time in all cases) can exist for them. Decidability of a logical system Each logical system comes with both a syntactic component, which among other things determines the notion of provability, and a semantic component, which determines ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Truth Table
A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic—specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus—which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional arguments, that is, for each combination of values taken by their logical variables. In particular, truth tables can be used to show whether a propositional expression is true for all legitimate input values, that is, logically valid. A truth table has one column for each input variable (for example, P and Q), and one final column showing all of the possible results of the logical operation that the table represents (for example, P XOR Q). Each row of the truth table contains one possible configuration of the input variables (for instance, P=true Q=false), and the result of the operation for those values. See the examples below for further clarification. Ludwig Wittgenstein is generally credited with inventing and popularizing the truth table ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equational Theory
Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures. For instance, rather than take particular groups as the object of study, in universal algebra one takes the class of groups as an object of study. Basic idea In universal algebra, an algebra (or algebraic structure) is a set ''A'' together with a collection of operations on ''A''. An ''n'' ary operation on ''A'' is a function that takes ''n'' elements of ''A'' and returns a single element of ''A''. Thus, a 0ary operation (or ''nullary operation'') can be represented simply as an element of ''A'', or a '' constant'', often denoted by a letter like ''a''. A 1ary operation (or ''unary operation'') is simply a function from ''A'' to ''A'', often denoted by a symbol placed in front of its argument, like ~''x''. A 2ary operation (or ''binary operation'') is often denoted by a symbol placed between its argum ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Subdirectly Irreducible Algebra
In the branch of mathematics known as universal algebra (and in its applications), a subdirectly irreducible algebra is an algebra that cannot be factored as a subdirect product of "simpler" algebras. Subdirectly irreducible algebras play a somewhat analogous role in algebra to primes in number theory. Definition A universal algebra ''A'' is said to be subdirectly irreducible when ''A'' has more than one element, and when any subdirect representation of ''A'' includes (as a factor) an algebra isomorphic to ''A'', with the isomorphism being given by the projection map. Examples * The twoelement chain, as either a Boolean algebra, a Heyting algebra, a lattice, or a semilattice, is subdirectly irreducible. In fact, the twoelement chain is the only subdirectly irreducible distributive lattice. * Any finite chain with two or more elements, as a Heyting algebra, is subdirectly irreducible. (This is not the case for chains of three or more elements as either lattices or semilattices, w ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pointless Topology
In mathematics, pointless topology, also called pointfree topology (or pointfree topology) and locale theory, is an approach to topology that avoids mentioning points, and in which the lattices of open sets are the primitive notions. In this approach it becomes possible to construct ''topologically interesting'' spaces from purely algebraic data. History The first approaches to topology were geometrical, where one started from Euclidean space and patched things together. But Marshall Stone's work on Stone duality in the 1930s showed that topology can be viewed from an algebraic point of view (latticetheoretic). Apart from Stone, Henry Wallman was the first person to exploit this idea. Others continued this path till Charles Ehresmann and his student Jean Bénabou (and simultaneously others), made the next fundamental step in the late fifties. Their insights arose from the study of "topological" and "differentiable" categories. Ehresmann's approach involved using a category ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complete Heyting Algebra
In mathematics, especially in order theory, a complete Heyting algebra is a Heyting algebra that is complete as a lattice. Complete Heyting algebras are the objects of three different categories; the category CHey, the category Loc of locales, and its opposite, the category Frm of frames. Although these three categories contain the same objects, they differ in their morphisms, and thus get distinct names. Only the morphisms of CHey are homomorphisms of complete Heyting algebras. Locales and frames form the foundation of pointless topology, which, instead of building on pointset topology, recasts the ideas of general topology in categorical terms, as statements on frames and locales. Definition Consider a partially ordered set (''P'', ≤) that is a complete lattice. Then ''P'' is a complete Heyting algebra or frame if any of the following equivalent conditions hold: * ''P'' is a Heyting algebra, i.e. the operation (x\land\cdot) has a right adjoint (also called the lower adjo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Topological Space
In mathematics, a topological space is, roughly speaking, a geometrical space in which closeness is defined but cannot necessarily be measured by a numeric distance. More specifically, a topological space is a set whose elements are called points, along with an additional structure called a topology, which can be defined as a set of neighbourhoods for each point that satisfy some axioms formalizing the concept of closeness. There are several equivalent definitions of a topology, the most commonly used of which is the definition through open sets, which is easier than the others to manipulate. A topological space is the most general type of a mathematical space that allows for the definition of limits, continuity, and connectedness. Common types of topological spaces include Euclidean spaces, metric spaces and manifolds. Although very general, the concept of topological spaces is fundamental, and used in virtually every branch of modern mathematics. The study of topological spac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 