Gardner's Syndrome
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Gardner's Syndrome
Gardner's syndrome (also known as Gardner syndrome, familial polyposis of the colon, or familial colorectal polyposis) is a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Gardner syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of polyposis characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the colon together with tumors outside the colon. The extracolonic tumors may include osteomas of the skull, thyroid cancer, epidermoid cysts, fibromas, as well as the occurrence of desmoid tumors in approximately 15% of affected individuals. Desmoid tumors are fibrous tumors that usually occur in the tissue covering the intestines and may be provoked by surgery to remove the colon. The countless polyps in the colon predispose to the development of colon cancer; if the colon is not removed, the chance of colon cancer is considered to be very significant. Polyps may also grow in the stomach, duodenum, spleen, kidneys, liver, mesentery, and small bowel. In a small number of cases, polyps have also app ...
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Familial Adenomatous Polyposis
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous Adenomatous polyps, adenomatous Colorectal polyp, polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the colon (anatomy), large intestine. While these polyps start out benign, malignant transformation into colorectal cancer, colon cancer occurs when they are left untreated. Three variants are known to exist, FAP and attenuated FAP (originally called hereditary flat adenoma syndrome) are caused by APC gene defects on chromosome 5 while autosomal recessive FAP (or MUTYH-associated polyposis) is caused by defects in the ''MUTYH'' gene on chromosome 1. Of the three, FAP itself is the most severe and most common; although for all three, the resulting colonic polyps and cancers are initially confined to the colon wall. Detection and removal before metastasis outside the colon can greatly reduce and in many cases eliminate the spread of cancer. The root cause of FAP is understood to be a genetic mutati ...
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Cerebellum
The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates. Although usually smaller than the cerebrum, in some animals such as the mormyrid fishes it may be as large as or even larger. In humans, the cerebellum plays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in some cognition, cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as emotion, emotional control such as regulating fear and pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the most solidly established. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to Motor coordination, coordination, precision, and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in Fine motor skill, fine movement, Equilibrioception, equilibrium, Human positions, posture, and motor learning in humans. Anatomica ...
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Periampullary Cancer
Periampullary cancer is a cancer that forms near the ampulla of Vater, an enlargement of the Duct (anatomy), ducts from the liver and pancreas where they join and enter the small intestine. Quoted material is in the Copyright status of work by the U.S. government, public domain. It consists of: # ampullary tumour from ampulla of Vater # cancer of lower common bile duct # duodenal cancer adjacent to ampulla # carcinoma head of pancreas It presents with painless jaundice which may have waxing and waning nature because at times the sloughing of the tumor tissue relieves the obstruction partially. Signs and symptoms of periampullary cancer * Jaundice (yellowing of skin, eyes and urine with pale stools) * Itching * Abdominal pain * Weight loss and loss of appetite * Recurrent vomiting * Black stools * Anaemia Treatment The treatment depends upon the stage of the disease and degree of jaundice. Surgery is the best possible option and can be considered if the cancer is diagnosed a ...
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Gardner Fibroma
Gardner may refer to: Name *Gardner (given name) * Gardner (surname) Places United States *Gardner, Colorado *Gardner, Illinois *Gardner, Kansas *Gardner, Massachusetts * Gardner, North Dakota *Gardner, Tennessee *Gardner, Wisconsin *Glen Gardner, New Jersey Geographical features *Gardner (crater) on the Moon *Gardner Canal in British Columbia, Canada *Gardner Inlet in Antarctica *Gardner Pinnacles in Hawaii, United States *Gardner River in Yellowstone National Park, United States *Gardner Island or Nikumaroro, part of the Phoenix Islands, Kiribati Institutions *Gardner–Webb University in North Carolina *Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, Massachusetts *L. Gardner and Sons Ltd., Patricroft, Manchester, England - a builder of diesel engines *Gardner (automobile), a car maker based in St. Louis, Missouri, between 1920 and 1931 Animals *Gardner snake, any species of North American snake within the genus ''Thamnophis'', more properly called garter snakes Weapons *Gardner ...
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Gastrointestinal Tract
The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus. The GI tract contains all the major organ (biology), organs of the digestive system, in humans and other animals, including the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Food taken in through the mouth is digestion, digested to extract nutrients and absorb energy, and the waste expelled at the anus as feces. ''Gastrointestinal'' is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. Nephrozoa, Most animals have a "through-gut" or complete digestive tract. Exceptions are more primitive ones: sponges have small pores (ostium (sponges), ostia) throughout their body for digestion and a larger dorsal pore (osculum) for excretion, comb jellies have both a ventral mouth and dorsal anal pores, while cnidarians and acoels have a single pore for both digestion and excretion. The human gastrointestinal tract consists o ...
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Autosomal Dominant
In genetics, dominance is the phenomenon of one variant (allele) of a gene on a chromosome masking or overriding the effect of a different variant of the same gene on the other copy of the chromosome. The first variant is termed dominant and the second recessive. This state of having two different variants of the same gene on each chromosome is originally caused by a mutation in one of the genes, either new (''de novo'') or inherited. The terms autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive are used to describe gene variants on non-sex chromosomes ( autosomes) and their associated traits, while those on sex chromosomes (allosomes) are termed X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive or Y-linked; these have an inheritance and presentation pattern that depends on the sex of both the parent and the child (see Sex linkage). Since there is only one copy of the Y chromosome, Y-linked traits cannot be dominant or recessive. Additionally, there are other forms of dominance such as incomplete d ...
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Autosomal Dominant - En
An autosome is any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. The members of an autosome pair in a diploid cell have the same morphology, unlike those in allosomal (sex chromosome) pairs, which may have different structures. The DNA in autosomes is collectively known as atDNA or auDNA. For example, humans have a diploid genome that usually contains 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair (46 chromosomes total). The autosome pairs are labeled with numbers (1–22 in humans) roughly in order of their sizes in base pairs, while allosomes are labelled with their letters. By contrast, the allosome pair consists of two X chromosomes in females or one X and one Y chromosome in males. Unusual combinations of XYY, XXY, XXX, XXXX, XXXXX or XXYY, among other Salome combinations, are known to occur and usually cause developmental abnormalities. Autosomes still contain sexual determination genes even though they are not sex chromosomes. For example, the SRY gene on the Y chromosome e ...
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Phenotypic
In genetics, the phenotype () is the set of observable characteristics or traits of an organism. The term covers the organism's morphology or physical form and structure, its developmental processes, its biochemical and physiological properties, its behavior, and the products of behavior. An organism's phenotype results from two basic factors: the expression of an organism's genetic code, or its genotype, and the influence of environmental factors. Both factors may interact, further affecting phenotype. When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species, the species is called polymorphic. A well-documented example of polymorphism is Labrador Retriever coloring; while the coat color depends on many genes, it is clearly seen in the environment as yellow, black, and brown. Richard Dawkins in 1978 and then again in his 1982 book ''The Extended Phenotype'' suggested that one can regard bird nests and other built structures such as caddis ...
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