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Flysch
Flysch () is a sequence of sedimentary rock layers that progress from deep-water and turbidity flow deposits to shallow-water shales and sandstones. It is deposited when a deep basin forms rapidly on the continental side of a mountain building episode. Examples are found near the North American Cordillera, the Alps, the Pyrenees and the Carpathians. Sedimentological properties Flysch consists of repeated sedimentary cycles with upwards fining of the sediments. There are sometimes coarse conglomerates or breccias at the bottom of each cycle, which gradually evolve upwards into sandstone and shale/mudstone. Flysch typically consists of a sequence of shales rhythmically interbedded with thin, hard, graywacke-like sandstones. Typically the shales do not contain many fossils, while the coarser sandstones often have fractions of micas and glauconite. Tectonics In a continental collision, a subducting tectonic plate pushes on the plate above it, making the rock fold, often to the point ...
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Alps
The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it|Alpi ; rm|Alps; sl|Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia. The Alpine arch generally extends from Nice on the western Mediterranean to Trieste on the Adriatic and Vienna at the beginning of the Pannonian basin. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains 128 peaks higher than . The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe; in the mountains precipitation level ...
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Molasse
__NOTOC__ ''Nagelfluh''-molasse, Speer, Appenzell Alps The term "molasse" () refers to sandstones, shales and conglomerates that form as terrestrial or shallow marine deposits in front of rising mountain chains. The molasse deposits accumulate in a foreland basin, especially on top of flysch-like deposits, for example, those that left from the rising Alps, or erosion in the Himalaya. These deposits are typically the non-marine alluvial and fluvial sediments of lowlands, as compared to deep-water flysch sediments. Sedimentation stops when the orogeny stops, or when the mountains have eroded flat. Stanley, Steven M., ''Earth System History'', New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1999, p.243 The molasse can sometimes completely fill a foreland basin, creating a nearly flat depositional surface, that nonetheless remains a structural syncline. Molasse can be very thick near the mountain front, but usually thins out towards the interior of a craton; such massive, convex accumulations ...
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Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the accumulation or deposition of mineral or organic particles at the Earth's surface, followed by cementation. Sedimentation is the collective name for processes that cause these particles to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock are called sediment, and may be composed of geological detritus (minerals) or biological detritus (organic matter). The geological detritus originated from weathering and erosion of existing rocks, or from the solidification of molten lava blobs erupted by volcanoes. The geological detritus is transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice or mass movement, which are called agents of denudation. Biological detritus was formed by bodies and parts (mainly shells) of dead aquatic organisms, as well as their fecal mass, suspended in water and slowly piling up on the floor of water bodies (marine snow). Sedimentation may also occur as dissolved minerals precipitate from wat ...
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Carpathian Flysch Cm03
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Roughly long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Urals at and the Scandinavian Mountains at . The range stretches from the far eastern Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%), Ukraine (10%), Romania (50%) to Serbia (5%) in the south.
"The Carpathians" European Travel Commission, in The Official Travel Portal of Europe, Retrieved 15 November 2016

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Carpathians
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Roughly long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Urals at and the Scandinavian Mountains at . The range stretches from the far eastern Czech Republic (3%) in the northwest through Slovakia (17%), Poland (10%), Hungary (4%), Ukraine (10%), Romania (50%) to Serbia (5%) in the south.
"The Carpathians" European Travel Commission, in The Official Travel Portal of Europe, Retrieved 15 November 2016

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German Language
The German language (, ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the Italian province of South Tyrol. It is also a co-official language of Luxembourg, Belgium and parts of southwestern Poland, as well as a national language in Namibia. German is most similar to other languages within the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German (Low Saxon), Luxembourgish, Scots, and Yiddish. It also contains close similarities in vocabulary to Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, although these belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language after English. One of the major languages of the world, German is a native language to almost 100 million people worldwide and is spoken by a total of over 130 million people. It is the most spoken native language wit ...
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Plate Tectonic
upright=1.35|Diagram of the internal layering of Earth showing the lithosphere above the asthenosphere (not to scale) Plate tectonics (from the la|label=Late Latin|tectonicus, from the grc|τεκτονικός|lit=pertaining to building) is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of the plates making up the Earth's lithosphere since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3.3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into tectonic plates. The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates. Where the plates meet, their relative motion determines the type o ...
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Bernhard Studer
Prof Bernhard Studer HFRSE (August 21, 1794May 2, 1887), was a 19th-century Swiss geologist. Biography He was born at Buren an der Aare near Bern in Switzerland on 21 August 1794. He was educated to become a clergyman, but his interests later switched to sciences. In 1815 he became a teacher of mathematics at the gymnasium in Bern, and during the following year, began studying geology at University of Göttingen as a pupil of Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann. He subsequently furthered his education at Freiburg, Berlin and Paris. In 1825 he published his first major work, ''Beyträge zu einer Monographie der Molasse''. Later on, he commenced his detailed investigations of the western Alps, and published in 1834 his ''Geologie der westlichen Schweizer-Alpen''. In the same year, largely through his influence, the University of Bern was established and he became the first professor of geology. His ''Geologie der Schweiz'' in two volumes (1851–1853), and his geological maps of Switz ...
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Fold (geology)
In structural geology, a fold is a stack of originally planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, that are bent or curved during permanent deformation. Folds in rocks vary in size from microscopic crinkles to mountain-sized folds. They occur as single isolated folds or in periodic sets (known as ''fold trains''). Synsedimentary folds are those formed during sedimentary deposition. Folds form under varied conditions of stress, pore pressure, and temperature gradient, as evidenced by their presence in soft sediments, the full spectrum of metamorphic rocks, and even as primary flow structures in some igneous rocks. A set of folds distributed on a regional scale constitutes a fold belt, a common feature of orogenic zones. Folds are commonly formed by shortening of existing layers, but may also be formed as a result of displacement on a non-planar fault (''fault bend fold''), at the tip of a propagating fault (''fault propagation fold''), by differential compaction or due to the effe ...
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Switzerland
,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it|svizzero/svizzera or , rm|Svizzer/Svizra |government_type = Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent directorial republic |leader_title1 = Federal Council |leader_name1 = |leader_title2 = |leader_name2 = Walter Thurnherr |legislature = Federal Assembly |upper_house = Council of States |lower_house = National Council |sovereignty_type = History |established_event1 = Foundation date |established_date1 = The original date of the Rütlischwur was 1307 (reported by Aegidius Tschudi in the 16th century) and is just one among several comparable treaties between more or less the same parties during that period. The date of the Federal Charter of 1291 was selected in 1891 for the official celebration of the "Confederacy's 600th anniversary". (traditionally 1 August 1291) |established_event2 = Peace of Westphalia |established_date2 = 24 October 1648 |established_event3 = Restoration |established_date3 = 7 Augus ...
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Foreland Basin
Foreland may refer to: * a landform projecting into the sea, such as a headland or a promontory * an area of land in front of something **Foreland basin, in geology, the zone that receives sediment from an adjacent mountain chain **Glacier foreland, the area between the leading edge of a glacier and the moraines of the last maximum Places * Foreland, Isle of Wight, a promontory on the Isle of Wight in England * Foreland Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica * Foreland Point, a headland in Devon, England * Alpine Foreland, a region in Southern Germany * North and South Foreland, two headlands on the coast of Kent, England See also * Nils Tore Føreland (born 1957), Norwegian politician {{Disambiguation|geo ...
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Italy
Italy ( it|Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it|Repubblica Italiana|links=no ), is a country consisting of a continental part, delimited by the Alps, a peninsula and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in Southern Europe, and is also considered part of Western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital, the country covers a total area of and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predomi ...
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Turbidite
A turbidite is the geologic deposit of a turbidity current, which is a type of amalgamation of fluidal and sediment gravity flow responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean. Sequencing Ross Sandstone Formation (Namurian), County Clare, Western Ireland (USGS image) Turbidites were first properly described by Arnold H. Bouma (1962), who studied deepwater sediments and recognized particular "fining-up intervals" within deep water, fine-grained shales, which were anomalous because they started at pebble conglomerates and terminated in shales. This was anomalous because within the deep ocean it had historically been assumed that there was no mechanism by which tractional flow could carry and deposit coarse-grained sediments into the abyssal depths. Bouma cycles begin with an erosional contact of a coarse lower bed of pebble to granule conglomerate in a sandy matrix, and grade up through coarse then medium plane parallel sandstone; through cross ...
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Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period. They once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before experiencing natural erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east–west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east–west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) defines the ''Appalachian Highlands'' physiographic division as consisting of thirteen provinces: the Atlantic Coast Uplands, Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic, Maritime Acadian Highlands, Maritime Plain, Notre Dame and Mégantic Mountains, Western Newfoundland Mountains, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Valley and Ridge, Saint Lawrence Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, and New England provin ...
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Foreland Basin
Foreland may refer to: * a landform projecting into the sea, such as a headland or a promontory * an area of land in front of something **Foreland basin, in geology, the zone that receives sediment from an adjacent mountain chain **Glacier foreland, the area between the leading edge of a glacier and the moraines of the last maximum Places * Foreland, Isle of Wight, a promontory on the Isle of Wight in England * Foreland Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica * Foreland Point, a headland in Devon, England * Alpine Foreland, a region in Southern Germany * North and South Foreland, two headlands on the coast of Kent, England See also * Nils Tore Føreland (born 1957), Norwegian politician {{Disambiguation|geo ...
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