Euclidean Distance
In mathematics, the Euclidean distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a line segment between the two points. It can be calculated from the Cartesian coordinates of the points using the Pythagorean theorem, therefore occasionally being called the Pythagorean distance. These names come from the ancient Greek mathematicians Euclid and Pythagoras, although Euclid did not represent distances as numbers, and the connection from the Pythagorean theorem to distance calculation was not made until the 18th century. The distance between two objects that are not points is usually defined to be the smallest distance among pairs of points from the two objects. Formulas are known for computing distances between different types of objects, such as the distance from a point to a line. In advanced mathematics, the concept of distance has been generalized to abstract metric spaces, and other distances than Euclidean have been studied. In some applications in statistic ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Distance 2d
Euclidean (or, less commonly, Euclidian) is an adjective derived from the name of Euclid, an ancient Greek mathematician. It is the name of: Geometry *Euclidean space, the twodimensional plane and threedimensional space of Euclidean geometry as well as their higher dimensional generalizations *Euclidean geometry, the study of the properties of Euclidean spaces *NonEuclidean geometry, systems of points, lines, and planes analogous to Euclidean geometry but without uniquely determined parallel lines *Euclidean distance, the distance between pairs of points in Euclidean spaces *Euclidean ball, the set of points within some fixed distance from a center point Number theory *Euclidean division, the division which produces a quotient and a remainder *Euclidean algorithm, a method for finding greatest common divisors *Extended Euclidean algorithm, a method for solving the Diophantine equation ''ax'' + ''by'' = ''d'' where ''d'' is the greatest common divisor of ''a'' and ''b'' *Euc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Square (algebra)
In mathematics, a square is the result of multiplication, multiplying a number by itself. The verb "to square" is used to denote this operation. Squaring is the same as exponentiation, raising to the power 2 (number), 2, and is denoted by a superscript 2; for instance, the square of 3 may be written as 32, which is the number 9. In some cases when superscripts are not available, as for instance in programming languages or plain text files, the notations ''x''^2 (caret) or ''x''**2 may be used in place of ''x''2. The adjective which corresponds to squaring is ''wikt:quadratic, quadratic''. The square of an integer may also be called a square number or a perfect square. In algebra, the operation of squaring is often generalized to polynomials, other expression (mathematics), expressions, or values in systems of mathematical values other than the numbers. For instance, the square of the linear function (calculus), linear polynomial is the quadratic polynomial . One of the imp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Distance From A Point To A Plane
In Euclidean space, the distance from a point to a plane is the distance between a given point and its orthogonal projection on the plane, the perpendicular distance to the nearest point on the plane. It can be found starting with a change of variables that moves the origin to coincide with the given point then finding the point on the shifted plane ax + by + cz = d that is closest to the origin. The resulting point has Cartesian coordinates (x,y,z): :\displaystyle x = \frac , \quad \quad \displaystyle y = \frac , \quad \quad \displaystyle z = \frac . The distance between the origin and the point (x,y,z) is \sqrt. Converting general problem to distancefromorigin problem Suppose we wish to find the nearest point on a plane to the point (X_0, Y_0, Z_0), where the plane is given by aX + bY + cZ = D. We define x = X  X_0, y = Y  Y_0, z = Z  Z_0, and d = D  aX_0  bY_0  cZ_0, to obtain ax + by + cz = d as the plane expressed in terms of the transformed variables. Now the problem ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

American Mathematical Monthly
''The American Mathematical Monthly'' is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894. It is published ten times each year by Taylor & Francis for the Mathematical Association of America. The ''American Mathematical Monthly'' is an expository journal intended for a wide audience of mathematicians, from undergraduate students to research professionals. Articles are chosen on the basis of their broad interest and reviewed and edited for quality of exposition as well as content. In this the ''American Mathematical Monthly'' fulfills a different role from that of typical mathematical research journals. The ''American Mathematical Monthly'' is the most widely read mathematics journal in the world according to records on JSTOR. Tables of contents with article abstracts from 1997–2010 are availablonline The MAA gives the Lester R. Ford Awards annually to "authors of articles of expository excellence" published in the ''American Mathematical Monthly''. Editors *2022– ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hausdorff Distance
In mathematics, the Hausdorff distance, or Hausdorff metric, also called Pompeiu–Hausdorff distance, measures how far two subsets of a metric space are from each other. It turns the set of nonempty compact subsets of a metric space into a metric space in its own right. It is named after Felix Hausdorff and Dimitrie Pompeiu. Informally, two sets are close in the Hausdorff distance if every point of either set is close to some point of the other set. The Hausdorff distance is the longest distance you can be forced to travel by an adversary who chooses a point in one of the two sets, from where you then must travel to the other set. In other words, it is the greatest of all the distances from a point in one set to the closest point in the other set. This distance was first introduced by Hausdorff in his book ''Grundzüge der Mengenlehre'', first published in 1914, although a very close relative appeared in the doctoral thesis of Maurice Fréchet in 1906, in his study of the space of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Euclidean Distance 3d 2 Cropped
Euclidean (or, less commonly, Euclidian) is an adjective derived from the name of Euclid, an ancient Greek mathematician. It is the name of: Geometry *Euclidean space, the twodimensional plane and threedimensional space of Euclidean geometry as well as their higher dimensional generalizations *Euclidean geometry, the study of the properties of Euclidean spaces *NonEuclidean geometry, systems of points, lines, and planes analogous to Euclidean geometry but without uniquely determined parallel lines *Euclidean distance, the distance between pairs of points in Euclidean spaces *Euclidean ball, the set of points within some fixed distance from a center point Number theory *Euclidean division, the division which produces a quotient and a remainder *Euclidean algorithm, a method for finding greatest common divisors *Extended Euclidean algorithm, a method for solving the Diophantine equation ''ax'' + ''by'' = ''d'' where ''d'' is the greatest common divisor of ''a'' and ''b'' *Euc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Norm
In mathematics, a norm is a function from a real or complex vector space to the nonnegative real numbers that behaves in certain ways like the distance from the origin: it commutes with scaling, obeys a form of the triangle inequality, and is zero only at the origin. In particular, the Euclidean distance of a vector from the origin is a norm, called the Euclidean norm, or 2norm, which may also be defined as the square root of the inner product of a vector with itself. A seminorm satisfies the first two properties of a norm, but may be zero for vectors other than the origin. A vector space with a specified norm is called a normed vector space. In a similar manner, a vector space with a seminorm is called a ''seminormed vector space''. The term pseudonorm has been used for several related meanings. It may be a synonym of "seminorm". A pseudonorm may satisfy the same axioms as a norm, with the equality replaced by an inequality "\,\leq\," in the homogeneity axiom. It can also re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Plane
In mathematics, the complex plane is the plane formed by the complex numbers, with a Cartesian coordinate system such that the axis, called the real axis, is formed by the real numbers, and the axis, called the imaginary axis, is formed by the imaginary numbers. The complex plane allows a geometric interpretation of complex numbers. Under addition, they add like vectors. The multiplication of two complex numbers can be expressed more easily in polar coordinates—the magnitude or ''modulus'' of the product is the product of the two absolute values, or moduli, and the angle or ''argument'' of the product is the sum of the two angles, or arguments. In particular, multiplication by a complex number of modulus 1 acts as a rotation. The complex plane is sometimes known as the Argand plane or Gauss plane. Notational conventions Complex numbers In complex analysis, the complex numbers are customarily represented by the symbol ''z'', which can be separated into its real (''x'') and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Number
In mathematics, a complex number is an element of a number system that extends the real numbers with a specific element denoted , called the imaginary unit and satisfying the equation i^= 1; every complex number can be expressed in the form a + bi, where and are real numbers. Because no real number satisfies the above equation, was called an imaginary number by René Descartes. For the complex number a+bi, is called the , and is called the . The set of complex numbers is denoted by either of the symbols \mathbb C or . Despite the historical nomenclature "imaginary", complex numbers are regarded in the mathematical sciences as just as "real" as the real numbers and are fundamental in many aspects of the scientific description of the natural world. Complex numbers allow solutions to all polynomial equations, even those that have no solutions in real numbers. More precisely, the fundamental theorem of algebra asserts that every nonconstant polynomial equation with real or ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Law Of Cosines
In trigonometry, the law of cosines (also known as the cosine formula, cosine rule, or alKashi's theorem) relates the lengths of the sides of a triangle to the cosine of one of its angles. Using notation as in Fig. 1, the law of cosines states :c^2 = a^2 + b^2  2ab\cos\gamma, where denotes the angle contained between sides of lengths and and opposite the side of length . For the same figure, the other two relations are analogous: :a^2=b^2+c^22bc\cos\alpha, :b^2=a^2+c^22ac\cos\beta. The law of cosines generalizes the Pythagorean theorem, which holds only for right triangles: if the angle is a right angle (of measure 90 degrees, or radians), then , and thus the law of cosines reduces to the Pythagorean theorem: :c^2 = a^2 + b^2. The law of cosines is useful for computing the third side of a triangle when two sides and their enclosed angle are known. History Though the notion of the cosine was not yet developed in his time, Euclid's '' Elements'', dating back to th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Polar Coordinate System
In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a twodimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction. The reference point (analogous to the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system) is called the ''pole'', and the ray from the pole in the reference direction is the ''polar axis''. The distance from the pole is called the ''radial coordinate'', ''radial distance'' or simply ''radius'', and the angle is called the ''angular coordinate'', ''polar angle'', or ''azimuth''. Angles in polar notation are generally expressed in either degrees or radians (2 rad being equal to 360°). Grégoire de SaintVincent and Bonaventura Cavalieri independently introduced the concepts in the mid17th century, though the actual term "polar coordinates" has been attributed to Gregorio Fontana in the 18th century. The initial motivation for the introduction of the polar system was the study of circula ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Right Triangle
A right triangle (American English) or rightangled triangle (British), or more formally an orthogonal triangle, formerly called a rectangled triangle ( grc, ὀρθόσγωνία, lit=upright angle), is a triangle in which one angle is a right angle (that is, a 90degree angle), i.e., in which two sides are perpendicular. The relation between the sides and other angles of the right triangle is the basis for trigonometry. The side opposite to the right angle is called the ''hypotenuse'' (side ''c'' in the figure). The sides adjacent to the right angle are called ''legs'' (or ''catheti'', singular: ''cathetus''). Side ''a'' may be identified as the side ''adjacent to angle B'' and ''opposed to'' (or ''opposite'') ''angle A'', while side ''b'' is the side ''adjacent to angle A'' and ''opposed to angle B''. If the lengths of all three sides of a right triangle are integers, the triangle is said to be a Pythagorean triangle and its side lengths are collectively known as a ''Pythagor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 