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Disk (mathematics)
In geometry, a disk (also spelled disc). is the region in a plane bounded by a circle. A disk is said to be ''closed'' if it contains the circle that constitutes its boundary, and ''open'' if it does not. Formulas In Cartesian coordinates, the ''open disk'' of center (a, b) and radius ''R'' is given by the formula :D=\ while the ''closed disk'' of the same center and radius is given by :\overline=\. The area of a closed or open disk of radius ''R'' is π''R''2 (see area of a disk). Properties The disk has circular symmetry. The open disk and the closed disk are not topologically equivalent (that is, they are not homeomorphic), as they have different topological properties from each other. For instance, every closed disk is compact whereas every open disk is not compact. However from the viewpoint of algebraic topology they share many properties: both of them are contractible and so are homotopy equivalent to a single point. This implies that their fundamental groups are trivia ...
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Fundamental Group
In the mathematical field of algebraic topology, the fundamental group of a topological space is the group of the equivalence classes under homotopy of the loops contained in the space. It records information about the basic shape, or holes, of the topological space. The fundamental group is the first and simplest homotopy group. The fundamental group is a homotopy invariant—topological spaces that are homotopy equivalent (or the stronger case of homeomorphic) have isomorphic fundamental groups. Intuition Start with a space (for example, a surface), and some point in it, and all the loops both starting and ending at this point—paths that start at this point, wander around and eventually return to the starting point. Two loops can be combined together in an obvious way: travel along the first loop, then along the second. Two loops are considered equivalent if one can be deformed into the other without breaking. The set of all such loops with this method of combining and this ...
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Disk Algebra
In functional and complex analysis, the disk algebra ''A''(D) (also spelled disc algebra) is the set of holomorphic functions :''f'' : D → C, where D is the open unit disk in the complex plane C, ''f'' extends to a continuous function on the closure of D. That is, :A(\mathbf) = H^\infty(\mathbf)\cap C(\overline), where denotes the Banach space of bounded analytic functions on the unit disc D (i.e. a Hardy space). When endowed with the pointwise addition (''f''+''g'')(''z'')''f''(''z'')+''g''(''z''), and pointwise multiplication (''fg'')(''z'')''f''(''z'')''g''(''z''), this set becomes an algebra over C, since if ''ƒ'' and ''g'' belong to the disk algebra then so do ''ƒ'' + ''g'' and ''ƒg''. Given the uniform norm, :\, f\, = \sup\=\max\, by construction it becomes a uniform algebra and a commutative Banach algebra. By construction the disc algebra is a closed subalgebra of the Hardy space . In contrast to the stronger requirement that a continuous e ...
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Ball (mathematics)
In mathematics, a ball is the volume space bounded by a sphere; it is also called a solid sphere. It may be a closed ball (including the boundary points that constitute the sphere) or an open ball (excluding them). These concepts are defined not only in three-dimensional Euclidean space but also for lower and higher dimensions, and for metric spaces in general. A ''ball'' or hyperball in dimensions is called an -ball and is bounded by an ()-sphere. Thus, for example, a ball in the Euclidean plane is the same thing as a disk, the area bounded by a circle. In Euclidean 3-space, a ball is taken to be the volume bounded by a 2-dimensional sphere. In a one-dimensional space, a ball is a line segment. In other contexts, such as in Euclidean geometry and informal use, ''sphere'' is sometimes used to mean ''ball''. In Euclidean space In Euclidean -space, an (open) -ball of radius and center is the set of all points of distance less than from . A closed -ball of radius is the set of ...
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Annulus (mathematics)
150px, An annulus In mathematics, an annulus (plural annuli or annuluses) is the region between two concentric circles. Informally, it is shaped like a ring or a hardware washer. The word "annulus" is borrowed from the Latin word ''anulus'' or ''annulus'' meaning 'little ring'. The adjectival form is annular (as in annular eclipse). The open annulus is topologically equivalent to both the open cylinder and the punctured plane. Area The area of an annulus is the difference in the areas of the larger circle of radius and the smaller one of radius : :A = \pi R^2 - \pi r^2 = \pi\left(R^2 - r^2\right). The area of an annulus is determined by the length of the longest line segment within the annulus, which is the chord tangent to the inner circle, in the accompanying diagram. That can be shown using the Pythagorean theorem since this line is tangent to the smaller circle and perpendicular to its radius at that point, so and are sides of a right-angled triangle with hypotenuse , an ...
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Unit Disk
An open Euclidean unit disk In mathematics, the open unit disk (or disc) around ''P'' (where ''P'' is a given point in the plane), is the set of points whose distance from ''P'' is less than 1: :D_1(P) = \.\, The closed unit disk around ''P'' is the set of points whose distance from ''P'' is less than or equal to one: :\bar D_1(P)=\.\, Unit disks are special cases of disks and unit balls; as such, they contain the interior of the unit circle and, in the case of the closed unit disk, the unit circle itself. Without further specifications, the term ''unit disk'' is used for the open unit disk about the origin, D_1(0), with respect to the standard Euclidean metric. It is the interior of a circle of radius 1, centered at the origin. This set can be identified with the set of all complex numbers of absolute value less than one. When viewed as a subset of the complex plane (C), the unit disk is often denoted \mathbb. The open unit disk, the plane, and the upper half-plane The functio ...
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Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem
Brouwer's fixed-point theorem is a fixed-point theorem in topology, named after L. E. J. (Bertus) Brouwer. It states that for any continuous function f mapping a compact convex set to itself there is a point x_0 such that f(x_0)=x_0. The simplest forms of Brouwer's theorem are for continuous functions f from a closed interval I in the real numbers to itself or from a closed disk D to itself. A more general form than the latter is for continuous functions from a convex compact subset K of Euclidean space to itself. Among hundreds of fixed-point theorems, Brouwer's is particularly well known, due in part to its use across numerous fields of mathematics. In its original field, this result is one of the key theorems characterizing the topology of Euclidean spaces, along with the Jordan curve theorem, the hairy ball theorem and the Borsuk–Ulam theorem. This gives it a place among the fundamental theorems of topology. The theorem is also used for proving deep results about differential ...
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Surjective
In mathematics, a function ''f'' from a set ''X'' to a set ''Y'' is surjective (also known as onto, or a surjection), if for every element ''y'' in the codomain ''Y'' of ''f'', there is at least one element ''x'' in the domain ''X'' of ''f'' such that ''f''(''x'') = ''y''. It is not required that ''x'' be unique; the function ''f'' may map one or more elements of ''X'' to the same element of ''Y''. The term ''surjective'' and the related terms ''injective'' and ''bijective'' were introduced by Nicolas Bourbaki, a group of mainly French 20th-century mathematicians who, under this pseudonym, wrote a series of books presenting an exposition of modern advanced mathematics, beginning in 1935. The French word ''sur'' means ''over'' or ''above'', and relates to the fact that the image of the domain of a surjective function completely covers the function's codomain. Any function induces a surjection by restricting its codomain to the image of its domain. Every surjective function has a ...
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Bijective
In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, one-to-one correspondence, or invertible function, is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set. There are no unpaired elements. In mathematical terms, a bijective function is a one-to-one (injective) and onto (surjective) mapping of a set ''X'' to a set ''Y''. The term ''one-to-one correspondence'' must not be confused with ''one-to-one function'' (an injective function; see figures). A bijection from the set ''X'' to the set ''Y'' has an inverse function from ''Y'' to ''X''. If ''X'' and ''Y'' are finite sets, then the existence of a bijection means they have the same number of elements. For infinite sets, the picture is more complicated, leading to the concept of cardinal number—a way to distinguish the various sizes of infinite sets. A bijective funct ...
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Fixed Point (mathematics)
In mathematics, a fixed point (sometimes shortened to fixpoint, also known as an invariant point) of a function is an element of the function's domain that is mapped to itself by the function. That is to say, ''c'' is a fixed point of the function ''f'' if ''f''(''c'') = ''c''. This means ''f''(''f''(...''f''(''c'')...)) = ''f'' ''n''(''c'') = ''c'', an important terminating consideration when recursively computing ''f''. A set of fixed points is sometimes called a ''fixed set''. For example, if ''f'' is defined on the real numbers by : f(x) = x^2 - 3 x + 4, then 2 is a fixed point of ''f'', because ''f''(2) = 2. Not all functions have fixed points: for example, ''f''(''x'') = ''x'' +1, has no fixed points, since ''x'' is never equal to ''x'' +1 for any real number. In graphical terms, a fixed point ''x'' means the point (''x'', ''f''(''x'')) is on the line ''y'' = ''x'', or in other words the graph of ''f'' has a point in common with that line. ...
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Continuous Map
In mathematics, a continuous function is a function that does not have any abrupt changes in value, known as discontinuities. More precisely, a function is continuous if arbitrarily small changes in its output can be assured by restricting to sufficiently small changes in its input. If not continuous, a function is said to be ''discontinuous''. Up until the 19th century, mathematicians largely relied on intuitive notions of continuity, during which attempts such as the epsilon–delta definition were made to formalize it. Continuity of functions is one of the core concepts of topology, which is treated in full generality below. The introductory portion of this article focuses on the special case where the inputs and outputs of functions are real numbers. A stronger form of continuity is uniform continuity. In addition, this article discusses the definition for the more general case of functions between two metric spaces. In order theory, especially in domain theory, one considers ...
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Euler Characteristic
In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler–Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space's shape or structure regardless of the way it is bent. It is commonly denoted by \chi (Greek lower-case letter chi). The Euler characteristic was originally defined for polyhedra and used to prove various theorems about them, including the classification of the Platonic solids. It was stated for Platonic solids in 1537 in an unpublished manuscript by Francesco Maurolico. Leonhard Euler, for whom the concept is named, introduced it for convex polyhedra more generally but failed to rigorously prove that it is an invariant. In modern mathematics, the Euler characteristic arises from homology and, more abstractly, homological algebra. Polyhedra The Euler characteristic \chi was classically defined for the surfaces of polyhedra, according to ...
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Homology Group
In mathematics, homology is a general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects, such as abelian groups or modules, to other mathematical objects such as topological spaces. Homology groups were originally defined in algebraic topology. Similar constructions are available in a wide variety of other contexts, such as abstract algebra, groups, Lie algebras, Galois theory, and algebraic geometry. The original motivation for defining homology groups was the observation that two shapes can be distinguished by examining their holes. For instance, a circle is not a disk because the circle has a hole through it while the disk is solid, and the ordinary sphere is not a circle because the sphere encloses a two-dimensional hole while the circle encloses a one-dimensional hole. However, because a hole is "not there", it is not immediately obvious how to define a hole or how to distinguish different kinds of holes. Homology was originally a rigorous mathematical method for definin ...
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Homotopy Equivalent
In topology, a branch of mathematics, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from Greek ὁμός ''homós'' "same, similar" and τόπος ''tópos'' "place") if one can be "continuously deformed" into the other, such a deformation being called a homotopy between the two functions. A notable use of homotopy is the definition of homotopy groups and cohomotopy groups, important invariants in algebraic topology. In practice, there are technical difficulties in using homotopies with certain spaces. Algebraic topologists work with compactly generated spaces, CW complexes, or spectra. Formal definition Formally, a homotopy between two continuous functions ''f'' and ''g'' from a topological space ''X'' to a topological space ''Y'' is defined to be a continuous function H: X \times ,1\to Y from the product of the space ''X'' with the unit interval , 1to ''Y'' such that H(x,0) = f(x) and H(x,1) = g(x) for all x \in X. If we thin ...
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Geometry
Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ''geo-'' "earth", ''-metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Until the 19th century, geometry was almost exclusively devoted to Euclidean geometry, which includes the notions of point, line, plane, distance, angle, surface, and curve, as fundamental concepts. During the 19th century several discoveries enlarged dramatically the scope of geometry. One of the oldest such discoveries is Gauss' Theorema Egregium (remarkable theorem) that asserts roughly that the Gaussian curvature of a surface is independent from any specific embedding in an Euclidean space. This implies that surfaces can be studied ''intrinsically'', that is as stand alone spaces, and has been expanded into the theory of manifolds a ...
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