Disjoint Sets
In mathematics, two sets are said to be disjoint sets if they have no element in common. Equivalently, two disjoint sets are sets whose intersection is the empty set.. For example, and are ''disjoint sets,'' while and are not disjoint. A collection of two or more sets is called disjoint if any two distinct sets of the collection are disjoint. Generalizations This definition of disjoint sets can be extended to a family of sets \left(A_i\right)_: the family is pairwise disjoint, or mutually disjoint if A_i \cap A_j = \varnothing whenever i \neq j. Alternatively, some authors use the term disjoint to refer to this notion as well. For families the notion of pairwise disjoint or mutually disjoint is sometimes defined in a subtly different manner, in that repeated identical members are allowed: the family is pairwise disjoint if A_i \cap A_j = \varnothing whenever A_i \neq A_j (every two ''distinct'' sets in the family are disjoint).. For example, the collection of sets is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Positively Separated Sets
In mathematics, two nonempty subsets ''A'' and ''B'' of a given metric space (''X'', ''d'') are said to be positively separated if the infimum :\inf_ d(a, b) > 0. (Some authors also specify that ''A'' and ''B'' should be disjoint sets; however, this adds nothing to the definition, since if ''A'' and ''B'' have some common point ''p'', then ''d''(''p'', ''p'') = 0, and so the infimum above is clearly 0 in that case.) For example, on the real line with the usual distance, the open interval In mathematics, a (real) interval is a set of real numbers that contains all real numbers lying between any two numbers of the set. For example, the set of numbers satisfying is an interval which contains , , and all numbers in between. Other ...s (0, 2) and (3, 4) are positively separated, while (3, 4) and (4, 5) are not. In two dimensions, the graph of ''y'' = 1/''x'' for ''x'' > 0 and the ''x''axis are not positively separa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mutually Exclusive Events
In logic and probability theory, two events (or propositions) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both occur at the same time. A clear example is the set of outcomes of a single coin toss, which can result in either heads or tails, but not both. In the cointossing example, both outcomes are, in theory, collectively exhaustive, which means that at least one of the outcomes must happen, so these two possibilities together exhaust all the possibilities. However, not all mutually exclusive events are collectively exhaustive. For example, the outcomes 1 and 4 of a single roll of a sixsided die are mutually exclusive (both cannot happen at the same time) but not collectively exhaustive (there are other possible outcomes; 2,3,5,6). Logic In logic, two mutually exclusive propositions are propositions that logically cannot be true in the same sense at the same time. To say that more than two propositions are mutually exclusive, depending on the context, means that one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hyperplane Separation Theorem
In geometry, the hyperplane separation theorem is a theorem about disjoint convex sets in ''n''dimensional Euclidean space. There are several rather similar versions. In one version of the theorem, if both these sets are closed and at least one of them is compact, then there is a hyperplane in between them and even two parallel hyperplanes in between them separated by a gap. In another version, if both disjoint convex sets are open, then there is a hyperplane in between them, but not necessarily any gap. An axis which is orthogonal to a separating hyperplane is a separating axis, because the orthogonal projections of the convex bodies onto the axis are disjoint. The hyperplane separation theorem is due to Hermann Minkowski. The Hahn–Banach separation theorem generalizes the result to topological vector spaces. A related result is the supporting hyperplane theorem. In the context of supportvector machines, the ''optimally separating hyperplane'' or ''maximummargin hyp ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Disjoint Union
In mathematics, a disjoint union (or discriminated union) of a family of sets (A_i : i\in I) is a set A, often denoted by \bigsqcup_ A_i, with an injection of each A_i into A, such that the images of these injections form a partition of A (that is, each element of A belongs to exactly one of these images). A disjoint union of a family of pairwise disjoint sets is their union. In category theory, the disjoint union is the coproduct of the category of sets, and thus defined up to a bijection. In this context, the notation \coprod_ A_i is often used. The disjoint union of two sets A and B is written with infix notation as A \sqcup B. Some authors use the alternative notation A \uplus B or A \operatorname B (along with the corresponding \biguplus_ A_i or \operatorname_ A_i). A standard way for building the disjoint union is to define A as the set of ordered pairs (x, i) such that x \in A_i, and the injection A_i \to A as x \mapsto (x, i). Example Consider the sets A_0 ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partition Refinement
In the design of algorithms, partition refinement is a technique for representing a partition of a set as a data structure that allows the partition to be refined by splitting its sets into a larger number of smaller sets. In that sense it is dual to the unionfind data structure, which also maintains a partition into disjoint sets but in which the operations merge pairs of sets. In some applications of partition refinement, such as lexicographic breadthfirst search, the data structure maintains as well an ordering on the sets in the partition. Partition refinement forms a key component of several efficient algorithms on graphs and finite automata, including DFA minimization, the Coffman–Graham algorithm for parallel scheduling, and lexicographic breadthfirst search of graphs. Data structure A partition refinement algorithm maintains a family of disjoint sets . At the start of the algorithm, this family contains a single set of all the elements in the data structure. At each ste ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Introduction To Algorithms
''Introduction to Algorithms'' is a book on computer programming by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest, and Clifford Stein. The book has been widely used as the textbook for algorithms courses at many universities and is commonly cited as a reference for algorithms in published papers, with over 10,000 citations documented on CiteSeerX. The book sold half a million copies during its first 20 years. Its fame has led to the common use of the abbreviation "CLRS" (Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest, Stein), or, in the first edition, "CLR" (Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest). In the preface, the authors write about how the book was written to be comprehensive and useful in both teaching and professional environments. Each chapter focuses on an algorithm, and discusses its design techniques and areas of application. Instead of using a specific programming language, the algorithms are written in pseudocode. The descriptions focus on the aspects of the algorithm itself, its mathe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Disjointset Data Structure
In computer science, a disjointset data structure, also called a union–find data structure or merge–find set, is a data structure that stores a collection of disjoint (nonoverlapping) sets. Equivalently, it stores a partition of a set into disjoint subsets. It provides operations for adding new sets, merging sets (replacing them by their union), and finding a representative member of a set. The last operation makes it possible to find out efficiently if any two elements are in the same or different sets. While there are several ways of implementing disjointset data structures, in practice they are often identified with a particular implementation called a disjointset forest. This is a specialized type of forest which performs unions and finds in nearconstant amortized time. To perform a sequence of addition, union, or find operations on a disjointset forest with nodes requires total time , where is the extremely slowgrowing inverse Ackermann function. Disjo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Binary Relation
In mathematics, a binary relation associates elements of one set, called the ''domain'', with elements of another set, called the ''codomain''. A binary relation over Set (mathematics), sets and is a new set of ordered pairs consisting of elements in and in . It is a generalization of the more widely understood idea of a unary function. It encodes the common concept of relation: an element is ''related'' to an element , if and only if the pair belongs to the set of ordered pairs that defines the ''binary relation''. A binary relation is the most studied special case of an Finitary relation, ary relation over sets , which is a subset of the Cartesian product X_1 \times \cdots \times X_n. An example of a binary relation is the "divides" relation over the set of prime numbers \mathbb and the set of integers \mathbb, in which each prime is related to each integer that is a Divisibility, multiple of , but not to an integer that is not a multiple of . In this relation, for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equivalence Relation
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The equipollence relation between line segments in geometry is a common example of an equivalence relation. Each equivalence relation provides a partition of the underlying set into disjoint equivalence classes. Two elements of the given set are equivalent to each other if and only if they belong to the same equivalence class. Notation Various notations are used in the literature to denote that two elements a and b of a set are equivalent with respect to an equivalence relation R; the most common are "a \sim b" and "", which are used when R is implicit, and variations of "a \sim_R b", "", or "" to specify R explicitly. Nonequivalence may be written "" or "a \not\equiv b". Definition A binary relation \,\sim\, on a set X is said to be an equivalence relation, if and only if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. That is, for all a, b, and c in X: * a \sim a ( ref ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Union (set Theory)
In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection. It is one of the fundamental operations through which sets can be combined and related to each other. A refers to a union of zero (0) sets and it is by definition equal to the empty set. For explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Union of two sets The union of two sets ''A'' and ''B'' is the set of elements which are in ''A'', in ''B'', or in both ''A'' and ''B''. In setbuilder notation, :A \cup B = \. For example, if ''A'' = and ''B'' = then ''A'' ∪ ''B'' = . A more elaborate example (involving two infinite sets) is: : ''A'' = : ''B'' = : A \cup B = \ As another example, the number 9 is ''not'' contained in the union of the set of prime numbers and the set of even numbers , because 9 is neither prime nor even. Sets cannot have duplicate elements, so the union of the sets and is . Multip ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partition Of A Set
In mathematics, a partition of a set is a grouping of its elements into nonempty subsets, in such a way that every element is included in exactly one subset. Every equivalence relation on a set defines a partition of this set, and every partition defines an equivalence relation. A set equipped with an equivalence relation or a partition is sometimes called a setoid, typically in type theory and proof theory. Definition and Notation A partition of a set ''X'' is a set of nonempty subsets of ''X'' such that every element ''x'' in ''X'' is in exactly one of these subsets (i.e., ''X'' is a disjoint union of the subsets). Equivalently, a family of sets ''P'' is a partition of ''X'' if and only if all of the following conditions hold: *The family ''P'' does not contain the empty set (that is \emptyset \notin P). *The union of the sets in ''P'' is equal to ''X'' (that is \textstyle\bigcup_ A = X). The sets in ''P'' are said to exhaust or cover ''X''. See also collectively exhaus ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 