Dirichlet Function
In mathematics, the Dirichlet function is the indicator function 1Q or \mathbf_\Q of the set of rational numbers Q, i.e. if ''x'' is a rational number and if ''x'' is not a rational number (i.e. an irrational number). \mathbf 1_\Q(x) = \begin 1 & x \in \Q \\ 0 & x \notin \Q \end It is named after the mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet. It is an example of pathological function which provides counterexamples to many situations. Topological properties The Dirichlet function is nowhere continuous. Its restrictions to the set of rational numbers and to the set of irrational numbers are constants and therefore continuous. The Dirichlet function is an archetypal example of the Blumberg theorem. The Dirichlet function can be constructed as the double pointwise limit of a sequence of continuous functions, as follows: \forall x \in \R, \quad \mathbf_(x) = \lim_ \left(\lim_\left(\cos(k!\pi x)\right)^\right) for integer ''j'' and ''k''. This shows that the Dirichlet funct ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within academia and society at large. The press was founded by Whitney Darrow, with the financial support of Charles Scribner, as a printing press to serve the Princeton community in 1905. Its distinctive building was constructed in 1911 on William Street in Princeton. Its first book was a new 1912 edition of John Witherspoon's ''Lectures on Moral Philosophy.'' History Princeton University Press was founded in 1905 by a recent Princeton graduate, Whitney Darrow, with financial support from another Princetonian, Charles Scribner II. Darrow and Scribner purchased the equipment and assumed the operations of two already existing local publishers, that of the ''Princeton Alumni Weekly'' and the Princeton Press. The new press printed both local newspapers, university documents, ''The Daily Princetonian'', and later added book publishing to it ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Thomae's Function
Thomae's function is a realvalued function of a real variable that can be defined as: f(x) = \begin \frac &\textx = \tfrac\quad (x \text p \in \mathbb Z \text q \in \mathbb N \text\\ 0 &\textx \text \end It is named after Carl Johannes Thomae, but has many other names: the popcorn function, the raindrop function, the countable cloud function, the modified Dirichlet function, the ruler function, the Riemann function, or the Stars over Babylon (John Horton Conway's name). Thomae mentioned it as an example for an integrable function with infinitely many discontinuities in an early textbook on Riemann's notion of integration. Since every rational number has a unique representation with coprime (also termed relatively prime) p \in \mathbb Z and q \in \mathbb N, the function is welldefined. Note that q = +1 is the only number in \mathbb N that is coprime to p = 0. It is a modification of the Dirichlet function, which is 1 at rational numbers and 0 elsewhere. Propert ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Integral
In mathematics, the integral of a nonnegative function of a single variable can be regarded, in the simplest case, as the area between the graph of that function and the axis. The Lebesgue integral, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, extends the integral to a larger class of functions. It also extends the domains on which these functions can be defined. Long before the 20th century, mathematicians already understood that for nonnegative functions with a smooth enough graph—such as continuous functions on closed bounded intervals—the ''area under the curve'' could be defined as the integral, and computed using approximation techniques on the region by polygons. However, as the need to consider more irregular functions arose—e.g., as a result of the limiting processes of mathematical analysis and the mathematical theory of probability—it became clear that more careful approximation techniques were needed to define a suitable integral. Also, one might ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Enumeration
An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection. The term is commonly used in mathematics and computer science to refer to a listing of all of the elements of a set. The precise requirements for an enumeration (for example, whether the set must be finite, or whether the list is allowed to contain repetitions) depend on the discipline of study and the context of a given problem. Some sets can be enumerated by means of a natural ordering (such as 1, 2, 3, 4, ... for the set of positive integers), but in other cases it may be necessary to impose a (perhaps arbitrary) ordering. In some contexts, such as enumerative combinatorics, the term ''enumeration'' is used more in the sense of ''counting'' – with emphasis on determination of the number of elements that a set contains, rather than the production of an explicit listing of those elements. Combinatorics In combinatorics, enumeration means counting, i.e., determining the exact number of elemen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Monotone Convergence Theorem
In the mathematical field of real analysis, the monotone convergence theorem is any of a number of related theorems proving the convergence of monotonic sequences (sequences that are nondecreasing or nonincreasing) that are also bounded. Informally, the theorems state that if a sequence is increasing and bounded above by a supremum, then the sequence will converge to the supremum; in the same way, if a sequence is decreasing and is bounded below by an infimum, it will converge to the infimum. Convergence of a monotone sequence of real numbers Lemma 1 If a sequence of real numbers is increasing and bounded above, then its supremum is the limit. Proof Let (a_n)_ be such a sequence, and let \ be the set of terms of (a_n)_ . By assumption, \ is nonempty and bounded above. By the leastupperbound property of real numbers, c = \sup_n \ exists and is finite. Now, for every \varepsilon > 0, there exists N such that a_N > c  \varepsilon , since otherwise c  \varepsilon is an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Lebesgue Measure
In measure theory, a branch of mathematics, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of ''n''dimensional Euclidean space. For ''n'' = 1, 2, or 3, it coincides with the standard measure of length, area, or volume. In general, it is also called ''n''dimensional volume, ''n''volume, or simply volume. It is used throughout real analysis, in particular to define Lebesgue integration. Sets that can be assigned a Lebesgue measure are called Lebesguemeasurable; the measure of the Lebesguemeasurable set ''A'' is here denoted by ''λ''(''A''). Henri Lebesgue described this measure in the year 1901, followed the next year by his description of the Lebesgue integral. Both were published as part of his dissertation in 1902. Definition For any interval I = ,b/math>, or I = (a, b), in the set \mathbb of real numbers, let \ell(I)= b  a denote its length. For any subset E\subseteq\mathbb, the Lebesgue oute ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Negligible Set
In mathematics, a negligible set is a set that is small enough that it can be ignored for some purpose. As common examples, finite sets can be ignored when studying the limit of a sequence, and null sets can be ignored when studying the integral of a measurable function. Negligible sets define several useful concepts that can be applied in various situations, such as truth almost everywhere. In order for these to work, it is generally only necessary that the negligible sets form an ideal; that is, that the empty set be negligible, the union of two negligible sets be negligible, and any subset of a negligible set be negligible. For some purposes, we also need this ideal to be a sigmaideal, so that countable unions of negligible sets are also negligible. If and are both ideals of subsets of the same set , then one may speak of ''negligible'' and ''negligible'' subsets. The opposite of a negligible set is a generic property, which has various forms. Examples Let ' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Riemann Integral
In the branch of mathematics known as real analysis, the Riemann integral, created by Bernhard Riemann, was the first rigorous definition of the integral of a function on an interval. It was presented to the faculty at the University of Göttingen in 1854, but not published in a journal until 1868. For many functions and practical applications, the Riemann integral can be evaluated by the fundamental theorem of calculus or approximated by numerical integration. Overview Let be a nonnegative realvalued function on the interval , and let be the region of the plane under the graph of the function and above the interval . See the figure on the top right. This region can be expressed in setbuilder notation as S = \left \. We are interested in measuring the area of . Once we have measured it, we will denote the area in the usual way by \int_a^b f(x)\,dx. The basic idea of the Riemann integral is to use very simple approximations for the area of . By taking better and be ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dense Set
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subset ''A'' of a topological space ''X'' is said to be dense in ''X'' if every point of ''X'' either belongs to ''A'' or else is arbitrarily "close" to a member of ''A'' — for instance, the rational numbers are a dense subset of the real numbers because every real number either is a rational number or has a rational number arbitrarily close to it (see Diophantine approximation). Formally, A is dense in X if the smallest closed subset of X containing A is X itself. The of a topological space X is the least cardinality of a dense subset of X. Definition A subset A of a topological space X is said to be a of X if any of the following equivalent conditions are satisfied: The smallest closed subset of X containing A is X itself. The closure of A in X is equal to X. That is, \operatorname_X A = X. The interior of the complement of A is empty. That is, \operatorname_X (X \setminus A) = \varnothing. Every point in X either ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Periodic Function
A periodic function is a function that repeats its values at regular intervals. For example, the trigonometric functions, which repeat at intervals of 2\pi radians, are periodic functions. Periodic functions are used throughout science to describe oscillations, waves, and other phenomena that exhibit periodicity. Any function that is not periodic is called aperiodic. Definition A function is said to be periodic if, for some nonzero constant , it is the case that :f(x+P) = f(x) for all values of in the domain. A nonzero constant for which this is the case is called a period of the function. If there exists a least positive constant with this property, it is called the fundamental period (also primitive period, basic period, or prime period.) Often, "the" period of a function is used to mean its fundamental period. A function with period will repeat on intervals of length , and these intervals are sometimes also referred to as periods of the function. Geometrically, a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Meagre Set
In the mathematical field of general topology, a meagre set (also called a meager set or a set of first category) is a subset of a topological space that is small or negligible in a precise sense detailed below. A set that is not meagre is called nonmeagre, or of the second category. See below for definitions of other related terms. The meagre subsets of a fixed space form a σideal of subsets; that is, any subset of a meagre set is meagre, and the union of countably many meagre sets is meagre. Meagre sets play an important role in the formulation of the notion of Baire space and of the Baire category theorem, which is used in the proof of several fundamental results of functional analysis. Definitions Throughout, X will be a topological space. A subset of X is called X, a of X, or of the in X if it is a countable union of nowhere dense subsets of X (where a nowhere dense set is a set whose closure has empty interior). The qualifier "in X" can be omitted if the ambien ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 