Direct Sum Of Groups
In mathematics, a group ''G'' is called the direct sumHomology. Saunders MacLane. Springer, Berlin; Academic Press, New York, 1963.László Fuchs. Infinite Abelian Groups of two normal subgroups with trivial intersection if it is generated by the subgroups. In abstract algebra, this method of construction of groups can be generalized to direct sums of vector spaces, modules, and other structures; see the article direct sum of modules for more information. A group which can be expressed as a direct sum of nontrivial subgroups is called ''decomposable'', and if a group cannot be expressed as such a direct sum then it is called ''indecomposable''. Definition A group ''G'' is called the direct sum of two subgroups ''H''1 and ''H''2 if * each ''H''1 and ''H''2 are normal subgroups of ''G'', * the subgroups ''H''1 and ''H''2 have trivial intersection (i.e., having only the identity element e of ''G'' in common), * ''G'' = ⟨''H''1, ''H''2⟩; in other words, ''G'' is generated ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematics
Mathematics is an area of knowledge that includes the topics of numbers, formulas and related structures, shapes and the spaces in which they are contained, and quantities and their changes. These topics are represented in modern mathematics with the major subdisciplines of number theory, algebra, geometry, and analysis, respectively. There is no general consensus among mathematicians about a common definition for their academic discipline. Most mathematical activity involves the discovery of properties of abstract objects and the use of pure reason to prove them. These objects consist of either abstractions from nature orin modern mathematicsentities that are stipulated to have certain properties, called axioms. A ''proof'' consists of a succession of applications of deductive rules to already established results. These results include previously proved theorems, axioms, andin case of abstraction from naturesome basic properties that are considered true starting points of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Generating Set Of A Group
In abstract algebra, a generating set of a group is a subset of the group set such that every element of the group can be expressed as a combination (under the group operation) of finitely many elements of the subset and their inverses. In other words, if ''S'' is a subset of a group ''G'', then , the ''subgroup generated by S'', is the smallest subgroup of ''G'' containing every element of ''S'', which is equal to the intersection over all subgroups containing the elements of ''S''; equivalently, is the subgroup of all elements of ''G'' that can be expressed as the finite product of elements in ''S'' and their inverses. (Note that inverses are only needed if the group is infinite; in a finite group, the inverse of an element can be expressed as a power of that element.) If ''G'' = , then we say that ''S'' ''generates'' ''G'', and the elements in ''S'' are called ''generators'' or ''group generators''. If ''S'' is the empty set, then is the trivial group , since we consider th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Free Product
In mathematics, specifically group theory, the free product is an operation that takes two groups ''G'' and ''H'' and constructs a new The result contains both ''G'' and ''H'' as subgroups, is generated by the elements of these subgroups, and is the “universal” group having these properties, in the sense that any two homomorphisms from ''G'' and ''H'' into a group ''K'' factor uniquely through a homomorphism from to ''K''. Unless one of the groups ''G'' and ''H'' is trivial, the free product is always infinite. The construction of a free product is similar in spirit to the construction of a free group (the universal group with a given set of generators). The free product is the coproduct in the category of groups. That is, the free product plays the same role in group theory that disjoint union plays in set theory, or that the direct sum plays in module theory. Even if the groups are commutative, their free product is not, unless one of the two groups is the trivial grou ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Coproduct
In category theory, the coproduct, or categorical sum, is a construction which includes as examples the disjoint union of sets and of topological spaces, the free product of groups, and the direct sum of modules and vector spaces. The coproduct of a family of objects is essentially the "least specific" object to which each object in the family admits a morphism. It is the categorytheoretic dual notion to the categorical product, which means the definition is the same as the product but with all arrows reversed. Despite this seemingly innocuous change in the name and notation, coproducts can be and typically are dramatically different from products. Definition Let C be a category and let X_1 and X_2 be objects of C. An object is called the coproduct of X_1 and X_2, written X_1 \sqcup X_2, or X_1 \oplus X_2, or sometimes simply X_1 + X_2, if there exist morphisms i_1 : X_1 \to X_1 \sqcup X_2 and i_2 : X_2 \to X_1 \sqcup X_2 satisfying the following universal property: for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direct Sum
The direct sum is an operation between structures in abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics. It is defined differently, but analogously, for different kinds of structures. To see how the direct sum is used in abstract algebra, consider a more elementary kind of structure, the abelian group. The direct sum of two abelian groups A and B is another abelian group A\oplus B consisting of the ordered pairs (a,b) where a \in A and b \in B. To add ordered pairs, we define the sum (a, b) + (c, d) to be (a + c, b + d); in other words addition is defined coordinatewise. For example, the direct sum \Reals \oplus \Reals , where \Reals is real coordinate space, is the Cartesian plane, \R ^2 . A similar process can be used to form the direct sum of two vector spaces or two modules. We can also form direct sums with any finite number of summands, for example A \oplus B \oplus C, provided A, B, and C are the same kinds of algebraic structures (e.g., all abelian groups, or all vector spa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cartesian Product
In mathematics, specifically set theory, the Cartesian product of two sets ''A'' and ''B'', denoted ''A''×''B'', is the set of all ordered pairs where ''a'' is in ''A'' and ''b'' is in ''B''. In terms of setbuilder notation, that is : A\times B = \. A table can be created by taking the Cartesian product of a set of rows and a set of columns. If the Cartesian product is taken, the cells of the table contain ordered pairs of the form . One can similarly define the Cartesian product of ''n'' sets, also known as an ''n''fold Cartesian product, which can be represented by an ''n''dimensional array, where each element is an ''n''tuple. An ordered pair is a 2tuple or couple. More generally still, one can define the Cartesian product of an indexed family of sets. The Cartesian product is named after René Descartes, whose formulation of analytic geometry gave rise to the concept, which is further generalized in terms of direct product. Examples A deck of cards An ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Klein Group
In mathematics, the Klein fourgroup is a group with four elements, in which each element is selfinverse (composing it with itself produces the identity) and in which composing any two of the three nonidentity elements produces the third one. It can be described as the symmetry group of a nonsquare rectangle (with the three nonidentity elements being horizontal and vertical reflection and 180degree rotation), as the group of bitwise exclusive or operations on twobit binary values, or more abstractly as , the direct product of two copies of the cyclic group of order 2. It was named ''Vierergruppe'' (meaning fourgroup) by Felix Klein in 1884. It is also called the Klein group, and is often symbolized by the letter V or as K4. The Klein fourgroup, with four elements, is the smallest group that is not a cyclic group. There is only one other group of order four, up to isomorphism, the cyclic group of order 4. Both are abelian groups. The smallest nonabelian group is the s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Divisible Group
In mathematics, especially in the field of group theory, a divisible group is an abelian group in which every element can, in some sense, be divided by positive integers, or more accurately, every element is an ''n''th multiple for each positive integer ''n''. Divisible groups are important in understanding the structure of abelian groups, especially because they are the injective abelian groups. Definition An abelian group (G, +) is divisible if, for every positive integer n and every g \in G, there exists y \in G such that ny=g. An equivalent condition is: for any positive integer n, nG=G, since the existence of y for every n and g implies that n G\supseteq G, and the other direction n G\subseteq G is true for every group. A third equivalent condition is that an abelian group G is divisible if and only if G is an injective object in the category of abelian groups; for this reason, a divisible group is sometimes called an injective group. An abelian group is pdivisible for ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direct Product Of Groups
In mathematics, specifically in group theory, the direct product is an operation that takes two groups and and constructs a new group, usually denoted . This operation is the grouptheoretic analogue of the Cartesian product of sets and is one of several important notions of direct product in mathematics. In the context of abelian groups, the direct product is sometimes referred to as the direct sum, and is denoted G \oplus H. Direct sums play an important role in the classification of abelian groups: according to the fundamental theorem of finite abelian groups, every finite abelian group can be expressed as the direct sum of cyclic groups. Definition Given groups (with operation ) and (with operation ), the direct product is defined as follows: The resulting algebraic object satisfies the axioms for a group. Specifically: ;Associativity: The binary operation on is associative. ;Identity: The direct product has an identity element, namely , where is the identity e ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isomorphism
In mathematics, an isomorphism is a structurepreserving mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are isomorphic if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος ''isos'' "equal", and μορφή ''morphe'' "form" or "shape". The interest in isomorphisms lies in the fact that two isomorphic objects have the same properties (excluding further information such as additional structure or names of objects). Thus isomorphic structures cannot be distinguished from the point of view of structure only, and may be identified. In mathematical jargon, one says that two objects are . An automorphism is an isomorphism from a structure to itself. An isomorphism between two structures is a canonical isomorphism (a canonical map that is an isomorphism) if there is only one isomorphism between the two structures (as it is the case for solutions of a univer ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Normal Subgroup
In abstract algebra, a normal subgroup (also known as an invariant subgroup or selfconjugate subgroup) is a subgroup that is invariant under conjugation by members of the group of which it is a part. In other words, a subgroup N of the group G is normal in G if and only if gng^ \in N for all g \in G and n \in N. The usual notation for this relation is N \triangleleft G. Normal subgroups are important because they (and only they) can be used to construct quotient groups of the given group. Furthermore, the normal subgroups of G are precisely the kernels of group homomorphisms with domain G, which means that they can be used to internally classify those homomorphisms. Évariste Galois was the first to realize the importance of the existence of normal subgroups. Definitions A subgroup N of a group G is called a normal subgroup of G if it is invariant under conjugation; that is, the conjugation of an element of N by an element of G is always in N. The usual notation for this re ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 