Direct Access Storage Device
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Direct Access Storage Device
A direct-access storage device (DASD) (pronounced ) is a secondary storage device in which "each physical record has a discrete location and a unique address". The term was coined by IBM to describe devices that allowed random access to data, the main examples being drum memory and hard disk drives. Later, optical disc drives and flash memory units are also classified as DASD. The term DASD contrasts with sequential access storage device such as a magnetic tape drive, and unit record equipment such as a punched card device. A record on a DASD can be accessed without having to read through intervening records from the current location, whereas reading anything other than the "next" record on tape or deck of cards requires skipping over intervening records, and requires a proportionally long time to access a distant point in a medium. Access methods for DASD include sequential, partitioned, indexed, and direct. The DASD storage class includes both fixed and removable media. ...
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Secondary Storage
Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but less expensive and larger options further away. Generally, the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referred to as "storage". Even the first computer designs, Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine and Percy Ludgate's Analytical Machine, clearly distinguished between processing and memory (Babbage stored numbers as rotations of gears, while Ludgate stored numbers as displacements of rods in shuttles). This distinction was extended in the Von Neumann ar ...
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Block (data Storage)
In computing (specifically data transmission and data storage), a block, sometimes called a physical record, is a sequence of bytes or bits, usually containing some whole number of records, having a maximum length; a ''block size''. Data thus structured are said to be ''blocked''. The process of putting data into blocks is called ''blocking'', while ''deblocking'' is the process of extracting data from blocks. Blocked data is normally stored in a data buffer, and read or written a whole block at a time. Blocking reduces the overhead and speeds up the handling of the data stream. For some devices, such as magnetic tape and CKD disk devices, blocking reduces the amount of external storage required for the data. Blocking is almost universally employed when storing data to 9-track magnetic tape, NAND flash memory, and rotating media such as floppy disks, hard disks, and optical discs. Most file systems are based on a block device, which is a level of abstraction for the ...
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Virtual Storage Access Method
Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) is an IBM DASD file storage access method, first used in the OS/VS1, OS/VS2 Release 1 (SVS) and Release 2 (MVS) operating systems, later used throughout the Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS) architecture and now in z/OS. Originally a record-oriented filesystem, VSAM comprises four data set ''organizations'': key-sequenced (KSDS), relative record (RRDS), entry-sequenced (ESDS) and linear (LDS). The KSDS, RRDS and ESDS organizations contain records, while the LDS organization (added later to VSAM) simply contains a sequence of pages with no intrinsic record structure, for use as a memory-mapped file. Overview An IBM ''Redbook'' named "VSAM PRIMER" (especially when used with the "Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) Options for Advanced Applications" manual) explains the concepts needed to make use of VSAM. IBM uses the term ''data set'' in official documentation as a synonym of ''file'', and ''direct access storage device'' (''DASD'') becaus ...
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Indexed Sequential Access Method
ISAM (an acronym for indexed sequential access method) is a method for creating, maintaining, and manipulating computer files of data so that records can be retrieved sequentially or randomly by one or more key (computing), keys. Indexes of key fields are maintained to achieve fast retrieval of required file records in Indexed files. IBM originally developed ISAM for mainframe computers, but implementations are available for most computer systems. The term ''ISAM'' is used for several related concepts: *The IBM ISAM product and the algorithm it employs. *A database system where an application developer directly uses an application programming interface to search indexes in order to locate records in data files. In contrast, a relational database uses a query optimizer which automatically selects indexes. *An indexing algorithm that allows both sequential and keyed access to data. Most databases use some variation of the B-tree for this purpose, although the original IBM ISAM and ...
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Sequential Access Method
Sequential access is a term describing a group of elements (such as data in a memory array or a disk file or on magnetic tape data storage) being accessed in a predetermined, ordered sequence. It is the opposite of random access, the ability to access an arbitrary element of a sequence as easily and efficiently as any other at any time. Sequential access is sometimes the only way of accessing the data, for example if it is on a tape. It may also be the access method of choice, for example if all that is wanted is to process a sequence of data elements in order. Definition There is no consistent definition in computer science of sequential access or sequentiality. In fact, different sequentiality definitions can lead to different sequentiality quantification results. In spatial dimension, request size, stride distance, backward accesses, re-accesses can affect sequentiality. For temporal sequentiality, characteristics such as multi-stream and inter-arrival time threshold has impa ...
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Z/VSE
VSEn (''Virtual Storage Extended'') is an operating system for IBM mainframe computers, the latest one in the DOS/360 lineage, which originated in 1965. DOS/VSE was introduced in 1979 as a successor to DOS/VS; in turn, DOS/VSE was succeeded by VSE/SP version 1 in 1983, and VSE/SP version 2 in 1985. In February 2005, IBM announced z/VSE as successor to VSE/ESA 2.7, which was named to reflect the new System z branding for IBM's mainframe product line. In June 2021, 21st Century Software Inc announced that it had licensed the z/VSE source code from IBM with the intention of developing new versions of the operating system. As part of this transfer, z/VSE was renamed to VSEn. It is less common than z/OS and is mostly used on smaller machines. In the late 1980s, there was a widespread perception among VSE customers that IBM was planning to discontinue VSE and migrate its customers to MVS instead, although IBM relented and agreed to continue to produce new versions of VSE. Overview DO ...
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Fibre Channel Protocol
Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) is the SCSI interface protocol utilising an underlying Fibre Channel connection. The Fibre Channel standards define a high-speed data transfer mechanism that can be used to connect workstations, mainframes, supercomputers, storage devices and displays. FCP addresses the need for very fast transfers of large volumes of information and could relieve system manufacturers from the burden of supporting a variety of channels and networks, as it provides one standard for networking, storage and data transfer. Some Fibre Channel characteristics are: *Performance from 266 megabits/second to 16 gigabits/second *Support both optical and copper media, with distances up to 10 km. * Small connectors (sfp+ are most common) * High-bandwidth utilisation with distance insensitivity * Support for multiple cost/performance levels, from small systems to supercomputers * Ability to carry multiple existing interface command sets, including Internet Protocol (IP), SCSI, ...
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FICON
FICON (Fibre Connection) is the IBM proprietary name for the ANSI ''FC-SB-3 Single-Byte Command Code Sets-3 Mapping Protocol'' for Fibre Channel (FC) protocol. It is a FC layer 4 protocol used to map both IBM's antecedent (either ESCON or parallel Bus and Tag) channel-to-control-unit cabling infrastructure and protocol onto standard FC services and infrastructure. The topology is fabric utilizing FC switches or directors. Valid rates include 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Gigabit per second data rates at distances up to 100 km. FICON was introduced in 1998 as part of fifth generation of IBM System/390 mainframes. After 2011 FICON replaced ESCON in new IBM mainframe deployments because of FICON's technical superiority (especially its higher performance) and lower cost. Protocol internals Each FICON channel port is capable of multiple concurrent data exchanges (a maximum of 32) in full duplex mode. Information for active exchanges is transferred in Fibre Channel sequences mapped a ...
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VSE (operating System)
VSEn (''Virtual Storage Extended'') is an operating system for IBM mainframe computers, the latest one in the DOS/360 lineage, which originated in 1965. DOS/VSE was introduced in 1979 as a successor to DOS/VS; in turn, DOS/VSE was succeeded by VSE/SP version 1 in 1983, and VSE/SP version 2 in 1985. In February 2005, IBM announced z/VSE as successor to VSE/ESA 2.7, which was named to reflect the new System z branding for IBM's mainframe product line. In June 2021, 21st Century Software Inc announced that it had licensed the z/VSE source code from IBM with the intention of developing new versions of the operating system. As part of this transfer, z/VSE was renamed to VSEn. It is less common than z/OS and is mostly used on smaller machines. In the late 1980s, there was a widespread perception among VSE customers that IBM was planning to discontinue VSE and migrate its customers to MVS instead, although IBM relented and agreed to continue to produce new versions of VSE. Overview DO ...
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VM (operating System)
VM (often: VM/CMS) is a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers. The following versions are known: ;Virtual Machine Facility/370 :VM/370, released in 1972, is a System/370 reimplementation of earlier CP/CMS operating system. ;VM/370 Basic System Extensions Program Product :VM/BSE (BSEPP) is an enhancement to VM/370 that adds support for more devices (such as 3370-type fixed-block-architecture DASD drives), improvements to the CMS environment (such as an improved editor), and some stability enhancements to CP. ;VM/370 System Extensions Program Product :VM/SE (SEPP) is an enhancement to VM/370 that includes the facilities of VM/BSE, as well as a few additional fixes and features. ;Virtual Machine/System Product :VM/SP, a milestone version, replaces VM/370, VM/BSE and VM/SE. Release 1 added EXEC2 and XEDIT System Product Edit ...
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Fixed Block Architecture
Fixed-block architecture (FBA) is an IBM term for the hard disk drive (HDD) layout in which each addressable block (more commonly, sector) on the disk has the same size, utilizing 4 byte block numbers and a new set of command codes. FBA as a term was created and used by IBM for its 3310 and 3370 HDDs beginning in 1979 to distinguish such drives as IBM transitioned away from their variable record size format used on IBM's mainframe hard disk drives beginning in 1964 with its System/360. Overview From RAMAC until the early 1960s most hard disk drive data were addressed in the form of a three number block addressing scheme Cylinder, Head & Sector (CHS); the cylinder number, which positioned the head access mechanism; the head number, which selected the read-write head; and the sector number, which specified the rotational position of a fixed size block. On June 2, 1961, IBM introduced the 1301, which had variable length records, and the market for sector-oriented disks was ...
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