Derived Set (mathematics)
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Derived Set (mathematics)
In mathematics, more specifically in point-set topology, the derived set of a subset S of a topological space is the set of all limit points of S. It is usually denoted by S'. The concept was first introduced by Georg Cantor in 1872 and he developed set theory in large part to study derived sets on the real line. Examples If \mathbb is endowed with its usual Euclidean topology then the derived set of the half-open interval , 1) is the closed interval [0,1 Consider \mathbb with the Topology (structure)">topology (open sets) consisting of the empty set and any subset of \mathbb that contains 1. The derived set of A := \ is A' = \mathbb \setminus \. Properties If A and B are subsets of the topological space \left(X, \mathcal\right), then the derived set has the following properties: * \varnothing' = \varnothing * a \in A' \implies a \in (A \setminus \)' * (A \cup B)' = A' \cup B' * A \subseteq B \implies A' \subseteq B' A subset S of a topological space is closed precise ...
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Point-set Topology
In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic set-theoretic definitions and constructions used in topology. It is the foundation of most other branches of topology, including differential topology, geometric topology, and algebraic topology. Another name for general topology is point-set topology. The fundamental concepts in point-set topology are ''continuity'', ''compactness'', and ''connectedness'': * Continuous functions, intuitively, take nearby points to nearby points. * Compact sets are those that can be covered by finitely many sets of arbitrarily small size. * Connected sets are sets that cannot be divided into two pieces that are far apart. The terms 'nearby', 'arbitrarily small', and 'far apart' can all be made precise by using the concept of open sets. If we change the definition of 'open set', we change what continuous functions, compact sets, and connected sets are. Each choice of definition for 'open set' is called a ''t ...
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Dense-in-itself
In general topology, a subset A of a topological space is said to be dense-in-itself or crowded if A has no isolated point. Equivalently, A is dense-in-itself if every point of A is a limit point of A. Thus A is dense-in-itself if and only if A\subseteq A', where A' is the derived set of A. A dense-in-itself closed set is called a perfect set. (In other words, a perfect set is a closed set without isolated point.) The notion of dense set is unrelated to ''dense-in-itself''. This can sometimes be confusing, as "X is dense in X" (always true) is not the same as "X is dense-in-itself" (no isolated point). Examples A simple example of a set that is dense-in-itself but not closed (and hence not a perfect set) is the set of irrational numbers (considered as a subset of the real numbers). This set is dense-in-itself because every neighborhood of an irrational number x contains at least one other irrational number y \neq x. On the other hand, the set of irrationals is not closed becau ...
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Graduate Texts In Mathematics
Graduate Texts in Mathematics (GTM) (ISSN 0072-5285) is a series of graduate-level textbooks in mathematics published by Springer-Verlag. The books in this series, like the other Springer-Verlag mathematics series, are yellow books of a standard size (with variable numbers of pages). The GTM series is easily identified by a white band at the top of the book. The books in this series tend to be written at a more advanced level than the similar Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics series, although there is a fair amount of overlap between the two series in terms of material covered and difficulty level. List of books #''Introduction to Axiomatic Set Theory'', Gaisi Takeuti, Wilson M. Zaring (1982, 2nd ed., ) #''Measure and Category – A Survey of the Analogies between Topological and Measure Spaces'', John C. Oxtoby (1980, 2nd ed., ) #''Topological Vector Spaces'', H. H. Schaefer, M. P. Wolff (1999, 2nd ed., ) #''A Course in Homological Algebra'', Peter Hilton, Urs Stammbac ...
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Ordinal Numbers
In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is a generalization of ordinal numerals (first, second, th, etc.) aimed to extend enumeration to infinite sets. A finite set can be enumerated by successively labeling each element with the least natural number that has not been previously used. To extend this process to various infinite sets, ordinal numbers are defined more generally as linearly ordered labels that include the natural numbers and have the property that every set of ordinals has a least element (this is needed for giving a meaning to "the least unused element"). This more general definition allows us to define an ordinal number \omega that is greater than every natural number, along with ordinal numbers \omega + 1, \omega + 2, etc., which are even greater than \omega. A linear order such that every subset has a least element is called a well-order. The axiom of choice implies that every set can be well-ordered, and given two well-ordered sets, one is isomorphic t ...
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Limit Ordinal
In set theory, a limit ordinal is an ordinal number that is neither zero nor a successor ordinal. Alternatively, an ordinal λ is a limit ordinal if there is an ordinal less than λ, and whenever β is an ordinal less than λ, then there exists an ordinal γ such that β 0, are limits of limits, etc. Properties The classes of successor ordinals and limit ordinals (of various cofinalities) as well as zero exhaust the entire class of ordinals, so these cases are often used in proofs by transfinite induction or definitions by transfinite recursion. Limit ordinals represent a sort of "turning point" in such procedures, in which one must use limiting operations such as taking the union over all preceding ordinals. In principle, one could do anything at limit ordinals, but taking the union is continuous in the order topology and this is usually desirable. If we use the von Neumann cardinal assignment, every infinite cardinal number is also a limit ordinal (and this is a fitting ob ...
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Transfinite Recursion
Transfinite induction is an extension of mathematical induction to well-ordered sets, for example to sets of ordinal numbers or cardinal numbers. Its correctness is a theorem of ZFC. Induction by cases Let P(\alpha) be a property defined for all ordinals \alpha. Suppose that whenever P(\beta) is true for all \beta < \alpha, then P(\alpha) is also true. Then transfinite induction tells us that P is true for all ordinals. Usually the proof is broken down into three cases: * Zero case: Prove that P(0) is true. * Successor case: Prove that for any \alpha+1, P(\alpha+1) follows from P(\alpha) (and, if necessary, P(\beta) for all \beta < \alpha). * Limit case: Prove that for any

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Ordinal Number
In set theory, an ordinal number, or ordinal, is a generalization of ordinal numerals (first, second, th, etc.) aimed to extend enumeration to infinite sets. A finite set can be enumerated by successively labeling each element with the least natural number that has not been previously used. To extend this process to various infinite sets, ordinal numbers are defined more generally as linearly ordered labels that include the natural numbers and have the property that every set of ordinals has a least element (this is needed for giving a meaning to "the least unused element"). This more general definition allows us to define an ordinal number \omega that is greater than every natural number, along with ordinal numbers \omega + 1, \omega + 2, etc., which are even greater than \omega. A linear order such that every subset has a least element is called a well-order. The axiom of choice implies that every set can be well-ordered, and given two well-ordered sets, one is isomorphic t ...
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Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a ''topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; connected ...
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Induced Topology
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subspace of a topological space ''X'' is a subset ''S'' of ''X'' which is equipped with a topology induced from that of ''X'' called the subspace topology (or the relative topology, or the induced topology, or the trace topology). Definition Given a topological space (X, \tau) and a subset S of X, the subspace topology on S is defined by :\tau_S = \lbrace S \cap U \mid U \in \tau \rbrace. That is, a subset of S is open in the subspace topology if and only if it is the intersection of S with an open set in (X, \tau). If S is equipped with the subspace topology then it is a topological space in its own right, and is called a subspace of (X, \tau). Subsets of topological spaces are usually assumed to be equipped with the subspace topology unless otherwise stated. Alternatively we can define the subspace topology for a subset S of X as the coarsest topology for which the inclusion map :\iota: S \hookrightarrow X is continuous. More ...
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Polish Space
In the mathematical discipline of general topology, a Polish space is a separable completely metrizable topological space; that is, a space homeomorphic to a complete metric space that has a countable dense subset. Polish spaces are so named because they were first extensively studied by Polish topologists and logicians— Sierpiński, Kuratowski, Tarski and others. However, Polish spaces are mostly studied today because they are the primary setting for descriptive set theory, including the study of Borel equivalence relations. Polish spaces are also a convenient setting for more advanced measure theory, in particular in probability theory. Common examples of Polish spaces are the real line, any separable Banach space, the Cantor space, and the Baire space. Additionally, some spaces that are not complete metric spaces in the usual metric may be Polish; e.g., the open interval (0, 1) is Polish. Between any two uncountable Polish spaces, there is a Borel isomorphism; ...
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Cantor–Bendixson Theorem
In descriptive set theory, a subset of a Polish space has the perfect set property if it is either countable or has a nonempty perfect subset (Kechris 1995, p. 150). Note that having the perfect set property is not the same as being a perfect set. As nonempty perfect sets in a Polish space always have the cardinality of the continuum, and the reals form a Polish space, a set of reals with the perfect set property cannot be a counterexample to the continuum hypothesis, stated in the form that every uncountable set of reals has the cardinality of the continuum. The Cantor–Bendixson theorem states that closed sets of a Polish space ''X'' have the perfect set property in a particularly strong form: any closed subset of ''X'' may be written uniquely as the disjoint union of a perfect set and a countable set. In particular, every uncountable Polish space has the perfect set property, and can be written as the disjoint union of a perfect set and a countable open set. The a ...
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