Cost Of Sales
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Cost Of Sales
Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the carrying value of goods sold during a particular period. Costs are associated with particular goods using one of the several formulas, including specific identification, first-in first-out (FIFO), or average cost. Costs include all costs of purchase, costs of conversion and other costs that are incurred in bringing the inventories to their present location and condition. Costs of goods made by the businesses include material, labor, and allocated overhead. The costs of those goods which are not yet sold are deferred as costs of inventory until the inventory is sold or written down in value. Overview Many businesses sell goods that they have bought or produced. When the goods are bought or produced, the costs associated with such goods are capitalized as part of inventory (or stock) of goods. These costs are treated as an expense in the period the business recognizes income from sale of the goods. Determining costs requires keeping records of g ...
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Carrying Value
In accounting, book value is the value of an asset according to its balance sheet account balance. For assets, the value is based on the original cost of the asset less any depreciation, amortization or impairment costs made against the asset. Traditionally, a company's book value is its minus intangible assets and liabilities. However, in practice, depending on the source of the calculation, book value may variably include goodwill, intangible assets, or both.Graham and Dodd's ''Security Analysis'', Fifth Edition, pp 318 – 319 The value inherent in its workforce, part of the intellectual capital of a company, is always ignored. When intangible assets and goodwill are explicitly excluded, the metric is often specified to be ''tangible book value''. In the United Kingdom, the term net asset value may refer to the book value of a company. Asset book value An asset's initial book value is its actual cash value or its acquisition cost. Cash assets are recorded or "booked" at act ...
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Resource Consumption Accounting
Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA) is a management theory describing a dynamic, integrated, and comprehensive management accounting approach that provides managers with decision support information for enterprise optimization. RCA is a relatively new management accounting approach based largely on the German management accounting approach Grenzplankostenrechnung (GPK) and also allows for the use of activity-based drivers. Background RCA emerged as a management accounting approach beginning around 2000, and was subsequently developed aCAM-I (The Consortium of Advanced Management, International)in a Cost Management Section RCA interest group commencing in December 2001. Over the next seven years RCA was refined and validated through practical case studies, industry journal publications, and other research papers. In 2008, a group of interested academics and practitioners established the RCA Institute to introduce Resource Consumption Accounting to the marketplace and raise the s ...
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Accounting Terminology
Accounting, also known as accountancy, is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business", measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of stakeholders, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators. Practitioners of accounting are known as accountants. The terms "accounting" and " financial reporting" are often used as synonyms. Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting, management accounting, tax accounting and cost accounting. Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organization's financial information, including the preparation of financial statements, to the external users of the information, such as investors, regulators and suppliers; and management accounting focuses on the measurement, a ...
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Internal Revenue Service
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the revenue service for the United States federal government, which is responsible for collecting U.S. federal taxes and administering the Internal Revenue Code, the main body of the federal statutory tax law. It is an agency of the Department of the Treasury and led by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, who is appointed to a five-year term by the President of the United States. The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers; pursuing and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings; and overseeing various benefits programs, including the Affordable Care Act. The IRS originates from the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, a federal office created in 1862 to assess the nation's first income tax to fund the American Civil War. The temporary measure provided over a fifth of the Union's war expenses before being allowed to expire a decade later. In 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitut ...
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List Of Business And Finance Abbreviations
This is a list of abbreviations used in a business of financial context. 0-9 *1H – First half of the year *24/7 – 24 hours a day, seven days a week *80/20 – According to the Pareto principle, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes A *ADR – Alternative dispute resolution *AI – Artificial Intelligence *AM – Account manager *AOP – Adjusted Operating Profit *AOP – Annual Operating Plan *AP – Accounts payable *AR – Accounts receivable *ARPU – Average revenue per user *ASP – Average selling price *agcy. – Agency *agt. – Agent *asst. – Assistant *a/c. – Account B *BAU – Business As Usual *BEP – Break Even Point *BIC – Bank Identifier Code *bldg. – Building *BLS – Balance sheet *BMC – Business Model Canvas *BOM – Bill of materials *BPO – Business Process Outsourcing *BPR – Brief Project Report *BPV – Bank Payment Voucher *BRD – Business Requirements Document *BRU – Business Recovery Uni ...
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Inventory
Inventory (American English) or stock (British English) refers to the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goal of resale, production or utilisation. Inventory management is a discipline primarily about specifying the shape and placement of stocked goods. It is required at different locations within a facility or within many locations of a supply network to precede the regular and planned course of production and stock of materials. The concept of inventory, stock or work in process (or work in progress) has been extended from manufacturing systems to service businesses and projects, by generalizing the definition to be "all work within the process of production—all work that is or has occurred prior to the completion of production". In the context of a manufacturing production system, inventory refers to all work that has occurred—raw materials, partially finished products, finished products prior to sale and departure from the manufacturing system. ...
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Income Tax In The US
Income taxes in the United States are imposed by the federal government, and most states. The income taxes are determined by applying a tax rate, which may increase as income increases, to taxable income, which is the total income less allowable deductions. Income is broadly defined. Individuals and corporations are directly taxable, and estates and trusts may be taxable on undistributed income. Partnerships are not taxed (with some exceptions in the case of Federal income taxation), but their partners are taxed on their shares of partnership income. Residents and citizens are taxed on worldwide income, while nonresidents are taxed only on income within the jurisdiction. Several types of credits reduce tax, and some types of credits may exceed tax before credits. An alternative tax applies at the federal and some state levels. In the United States, the term "payroll tax" usually refers to FICA taxes that are paid to fund Social Security and Medicare, while "income tax" refe ...
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Gross Margin
Gross margin is the difference between revenue and cost of goods sold (COGS), divided by revenue. Gross margin is expressed as a percentage. Generally, it is calculated as the selling price of an item, less the cost of goods sold (e. g. production or acquisition costs, not including indirect fixed costs like office expenses, rent, or administrative costs), then divided by the same selling price. "Gross margin" is often used interchangeably with "gross profit", however the terms are different: "gross ''profit''" is technically an absolute monetary amount and "gross ''margin''" is technically a percentage or ratio. Gross margin is a kind of profit margin, specifically a form of profit divided by net revenue, e. g., gross (profit) margin, operating (profit) margin, net (profit) margin, etc. Purpose The purpose of margins is "to determine the value of incremental sales, and to guide pricing and promotion decision."Farris, Paul W.; Neil T. Bendle; Phillip E. Pfeifer; David J. Re ...
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Cost Of Revenue
Cost of revenue is the total of all costs incurred directly in producing, marketing, and distributing the products and services of a company to customers. Cost of revenue can be found in the company income statement. Generally, any costs that are directly connected with manufacturing and distribution of goods and services can be added to cost of revenue (i.e. direct costs). Indirect costs (e.g. depreciation, salaries paid to management or other fixed costs) are excluded. Cost of revenue is different from Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) in that it includes costs such as distribution and marketing. Example Definition of cost of revenue from the annual report of an internet-based company: "Cost of revenue. Our cost of revenue consists primarily of expenses associated with the delivery and distribution of our products. These include expenses related to the operation of our data centers, such as facility and server equipment depreciation, energy and bandwidth costs, and salaries, benefit ...
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Average Cost Method
Under the average cost method, it is assumed that the cost of inventory is based on the average cost of the goods available for sale during the period. The average cost is computed by dividing the total cost of goods available for sale by the total units available for sale. This gives a weighted-average unit cost that is applied to the units in the ending inventory. There are two commonly used average cost methods: Simple weighted-average cost method and perpetual weighted-average cost method. Weighted average cost Weighted average cost is a method of calculating ending inventory cost. It can also be referred to as "WAVCO". It takes cost of goods available for sale and divides it by the number of units available for sale (number of goods from beginning inventory + purchases/production). This gives a weighted average cost per unit. A physical count is then performed on the ending inventory to determine the number of goods left. Finally, this quantity is multiplied by wei ...
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Accounting Standards
Publicly traded companies typically are subject to rigorous standards. Small and midsized businesses often follow more simplified standards, plus any specific disclosures required by their specific lenders and shareholders. Some firms operate on the cash method of accounting which can often be simple and straight forward. Larger firms most often operate on an accrual basis. Accrual basis is one of the fundamental accounting assumptions and if it is followed by the company while preparing the Financial statements then no further disclosure is required. Accounting standards prescribe in considerable detail what accruals must be made, how the financial statements are to be presented, and what additional disclosures are required. Some important elements that accounting standards cover include: identifying the exact entity which is reporting, discussing any "going concern" questions, specifying monetary units, and reporting time frames. Limitations The notable limitations of accounting ...
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