Corporate Taxation
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Corporate Taxation
A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities. Many countries impose such taxes at the national level, and a similar tax may be imposed at state or local levels. The taxes may also be referred to as income tax or capital tax. A country's corporate tax may apply to: * corporations incorporated in the country, * corporations doing business in the country on income from that country, * foreign corporations who have a permanent establishment in the country, or * corporations deemed to be resident for tax purposes in the country. Company income subject to tax is often determined much like taxable income for individual taxpayers. Generally, the tax is imposed on net profits. In some jurisdictions, rules for taxing companies may differ significantly from rules for taxing individuals. Certain corporate acts or types of entities may be exempt from tax. The incidence of corpor ...
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Direct Tax
Although the actual definitions vary between jurisdictions, in general, a direct tax or income tax is a tax imposed upon a person or property as distinct from a tax imposed upon a transaction, which is described as an indirect tax. There is a distinction between direct and indirect tax depending on whether the tax payer is the actual taxpayer or if the amount of tax is supported by a third party, usually a client. The term may be used in economic and political analyses, but does not itself have any legal implications. However, in the United States, the term has special constitutional significance because of a provision in the U.S. Constitution that any ''direct taxes'' imposed by the national government be apportioned among the states on the basis of population. In the European Union direct taxation remains the sole responsibility of member states. General meaning In general, a direct tax is one imposed upon an individual person ( juristic or natural) or property (i.e. real and ...
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Excise Tax
file:Lincoln Beer Stamp 1871.JPG, upright=1.2, 1871 U.S. Revenue stamp for 1/6 barrel of beer. Brewers would receive the stamp sheets, cut them into individual stamps, cancel them, and paste them over the Bunghole, bung of the beer barrel so when the barrel was tapped it would destroy the stamp. An excise, or excise tax, is any duty (economics), duty on manufactured goods (economics), goods that is levied at the moment of manufacture rather than at sale. Excises are often associated with customs duties, which are levied on pre-existing goods when they cross a designated border in a specific direction; customs are levied on goods that become taxable items at the ''border'', while excise is levied on goods that came into existence ''inland''. An excise is considered an indirect tax, meaning that the producer or seller who pays the levy to the government is expected to try to recover their loss by raising the price paid by the eventual buyer of the goods. Excises are typically imp ...
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GDP Per Capita PPP Vs CIT 2016
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced and sold (not resold) in a specific time period by countries. Due to its complex and subjective nature this measure is often revised before being considered a reliable indicator. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore, using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) may be more useful when comparing living standards between nations, while nominal GDP is more useful comparing national economies on the international market. Total GDP can also be broken down into the contribution of each industry or sector of the economy. The ratio of GDP to the total population of the region is the per capita GDP (also called the Mean Standard of Living). GDP definitions are maintained by a number of national and international economic organizations. The Organi ...
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Share Of Federal Revenue From Different Tax Sources (Individual, Payroll, And Corporate) 1950 - 2010
Share may refer to: * Share, to make joint use of a resource (such as food, money, or space); see Sharing * Share (finance), a stock or other financial security (such as a mutual fund) * Share, Kwara, a town and LGA in Kwara State, Nigeria Share may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Share'' (2015 film), a short drama film * ''Share'' (2019 film), a feature drama film * ''Share'' (newspaper), a newspaper in Toronto, Canada * Ratings share, percentage of television sets in use tuned to a program, according to the Nielsen Ratings Computing * share (command), a shell command * SHARE (computing), a user group for IBM mainframe computers * Share (P2P), a Japanese P2P computer program, the successor to Winny * Share, a software service of Acrobat.com used for sending files * File sharing * Network share, a file storage area that is available over a computer network * Share icon, a user interface icon intended to convey performing a share action * SHARE Operating Sys ...
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Tax Exemption
Tax exemption is the reduction or removal of a liability to make a compulsory payment that would otherwise be imposed by a ruling power upon persons, property, income, or transactions. Tax-exempt status may provide complete relief from taxes, reduced rates, or tax on only a portion of items. Examples include exemption of charitable organizations from property taxes and income taxes, veterans, and certain cross-border or multi-jurisdictional scenarios. Tax exemption generally refers to a statutory exception to a general rule rather than the mere absence of taxation in particular circumstances, otherwise known as an exclusion. Tax exemption also refers to removal from taxation of a particular item rather than a deduction. International duty free shopping may be termed "tax-free shopping". In tax-free shopping, the goods are permanently taken outside the jurisdiction, thus paying taxes is not necessary. Tax-free shopping is also found in ships, airplanes and other vessels traveling ...
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Standard Deduction
Under United States tax law, the standard deduction is a dollar amount that non- itemizers may subtract from their income before income tax (but not other kinds of tax, such as payroll tax) is applied. Taxpayers may choose either itemized deductions or the standard deduction, but usually choose whichever results in the lesser amount of tax payable. The standard deduction is available to US citizens and aliens who are resident for tax purposes and who are individuals, married persons, and heads of household. The standard deduction is based on filing status and typically increases each year. It is not available to nonresident aliens residing in the United States (with few exceptions, for example, students from India on F1 visa status can use the standard deduction). Additional amounts are available for persons who are blind and/or are at least 65 years of age. The standard deduction is distinct from the personal exemption, which was eliminated by The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 20 ...
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Tax Deduction
Tax deduction is a reduction of income that is able to be taxed and is commonly a result of expenses, particularly those incurred to produce additional income. Tax deductions are a form of tax incentives, along with exemptions and tax credits. The difference between deductions, exemptions, and credits is that deductions and exemptions both reduce taxable income, while credits reduce tax. Above and below the line Above and below the line refers to items above or below adjusted gross income, which is item 37 on the tax year 2017 1040 tax form. Tax deductions above the line lessen adjusted gross income, while deductions below the line can only lessen taxable income if the aggregate of those deductions exceeds the standard deduction, which in tax year 2018 in the U.S., for example, was $12,000 for a single taxpayer and $24,000 for married couple. Limitations Often, deductions are subject to conditions, such as being allowed only for expenses incurred that produce current benefits. C ...
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Foreign Corporation
Foreign corporation is a term used in the United States to describe an existing corporation (or other type of corporate entity, such as a limited liability company or LLC) that conducts business in a state or jurisdiction other than where it was originally incorporated. The term applies both to domestic corporations that are incorporated in another state and to corporations that are incorporated in a nation other than the United States (known as "alien corporations"). All states require that foreign corporations register with the state before conducting business in the state. For U.S. federal tax purposes, where " foreign corporation" means a corporation that is not created or organized in the United States. For tax purposes, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) treats all domestic companies in the same manner for tax purposes, without regard to where they were originally formed or organized within the United States, but applies different rules to companies that are formed or orga ...
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Sole Proprietorship
A sole proprietorship, also known as a sole tradership, individual entrepreneurship or proprietorship, is a type of enterprise owned and run by one person and in which there is no legal distinction between the owner and the business entity. A sole trader does not necessarily work alone and may employ other people. The sole trader receives all profits (subject to taxation specific to the business) and has unlimited responsibility for all losses and debts. Every asset of the business is owned by the proprietor, and all debts of the business are that of the proprietor. It is a "sole" proprietorship in contrast with a partnership, which has at least two owners. Sole proprietors may use a trade name or business name other than their or its legal name. They may have to trademark their business name legally if it differs from their own legal name, with the process varying depending upon country of residence. Advantages and disadvantages Registration of a business name for a sole propri ...
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S Corporation
An S corporation, for United States federal income tax, is a closely held corporation (or, in some cases, a limited liability company (LLC) or a partnership) that makes a valid election to be taxed under Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code. In general, S corporations do not pay any income taxes. Instead, the corporation's income and losses are divided among and passed through to its shareholders. The shareholders must then report the income or loss on their own individual income tax returns. Overview S corporations are ordinary business corporations that elect to pass corporate income, losses, deductions, and credits through to their shareholders for federal tax purposes. The term "S corporation" means a "small business corporation" which has made an election under ยง 1362(a) to be taxed as an S corporation. The S corporation rules are contained in Subchapter S of Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code (sections 1361 through 1379). The United States Congre ...
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Partnership Taxation
Partnership taxation is the concept of taxing a partnership business entity. Many jurisdictions regulate partnerships and the taxation thereof differently. Common law Many common law jurisdictions apply a concept called "flow through taxation" to partnerships. Partnerships are a flow-through entity where the taxes are assessed at the entity level but which are applied to the partners of the partnership. United States Partnership taxation is codified as Subchapter K of Chapter 1 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code (Title 26 of the United States Code). Partnerships are "flow-through" entities for United States federal income taxation purposes. Flow-through taxation means that the entity does not pay taxes on its income. Instead, the owners of the entity pay tax on their "distributive share" of the entity's taxable income, even if no funds are distributed by the partnership to the owners. Federal tax law permits the owners of the entity to agree how the income of the entity will ...
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