Consensus Theorem
In Boolean algebra, the consensus theorem or rule of consensus is the identity: :xy \vee \barz \vee yz = xy \vee \barz The consensus or resolvent of the terms xy and \barz is yz. It is the conjunction of all the unique literals of the terms, excluding the literal that appears unnegated in one term and negated in the other. If y includes a term which is negated in z (or vice versa), the consensus term yz is false; in other words, there is no consensus term. The conjunctive dual of this equation is: :(x \vee y)(\bar \vee z)(y \vee z) = (x \vee y)(\bar \vee z) Proof : \begin xy \vee \barz \vee yz &= xy \vee \barz \vee (x \vee \bar)yz \\ &= xy \vee \barz \vee xyz \vee \baryz \\ &= (xy \vee xyz) \vee (\barz \vee \baryz) \\ &= xy(1\vee z)\vee\barz(1\vee y) \\ &= xy \vee \barz \end Consensus The consensus or consensus term of two conjunctive terms of a disjunction is defined when one term contains the literal ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Karnaugh Map KV Race Hazard 10
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Karnaugh is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Maurice Karnaugh (1924–2022), American physicist, mathematician, and inventor * Ron Karnaugh (born 1966), American retired swimmer See also * Karnaugh map The Karnaugh map (KM or Kmap) is a method of simplifying Boolean algebra expressions. Maurice Karnaugh introduced it in 1953 as a refinement of Edward W. Veitch's 1952 Veitch chart, which was a rediscovery of Allan Marquand's 1881 ''logica ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Race Hazard
A race condition or race hazard is the condition of an electronics, software, or other system where the system's substantive behavior is dependent on the sequence or timing of other uncontrollable events. It becomes a bug when one or more of the possible behaviors is undesirable. The term ''race condition'' was already in use by 1954, for example in David A. Huffman's doctoral thesis "The synthesis of sequential switching circuits". Race conditions can occur especially in logic circuits, multithreaded, or distributed software programs. In electronics A typical example of a race condition may occur when a logic gate combines signals that have traveled along different paths from the same source. The inputs to the gate can change at slightly different times in response to a change in the source signal. The output may, for a brief period, change to an unwanted state before settling back to the designed state. Certain systems can tolerate such glitches but if this output function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Algebra
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is a branch of algebra. It differs from elementary algebra in two ways. First, the values of the variables are the truth values ''true'' and ''false'', usually denoted 1 and 0, whereas in elementary algebra the values of the variables are numbers. Second, Boolean algebra uses logical operators such as conjunction (''and'') denoted as ∧, disjunction (''or'') denoted as ∨, and the negation (''not'') denoted as ¬. Elementary algebra, on the other hand, uses arithmetic operators such as addition, multiplication, subtraction and division. So Boolean algebra is a formal way of describing logical operations, in the same way that elementary algebra describes numerical operations. Boolean algebra was introduced by George Boole in his first book ''The Mathematical Analysis of Logic'' (1847), and set forth more fully in his '' An Investigation of the Laws of Thought'' (1854). According to Huntington, the term "Boolean algebra" wa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

The Art Of Computer Programming
''The Art of Computer Programming'' (''TAOCP'') is a comprehensive monograph written by the computer scientist Donald Knuth presenting programming algorithms and their analysis. Volumes 1–5 are intended to represent the central core of computer programming for sequential machines. When Knuth began the project in 1962, he originally conceived of it as a single book with twelve chapters. The first three volumes of what was then expected to be a sevenvolume set were published in 1968, 1969, and 1973. Work began in earnest on Volume 4 in 1973, but was suspended in 1977 for work on typesetting prompted by the second edition of Volume 2. Writing of the final copy of Volume 4A began in longhand in 2001, and the first online prefascicle, 2A, appeared later in 2001. The first published installment of Volume 4 appeared in paperback as Fascicle 2 in 2005. The hardback Volume 4A, combining Volume 4, Fascicles 0–4, was published in 2011. Volume 4, Fascicle 6 ("Satisfiability") was rel ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Donald Ervin Knuth
Donald Ervin Knuth ( ; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the 1974 recipient of the ACM Turing Award, informally considered the Nobel Prize of computer science. Knuth has been called the "father of the analysis of algorithms". He is the author of the multivolume work ''The Art of Computer Programming'' and contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process, he also popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, and the Computer Modern family of typefaces. As a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourag ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

John Alan Robinson
John Alan Robinson (9 March 1930 – 5 August 2016) was a philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist. He was a professor emeritus at Syracuse University. Alan Robinson's major contribution is to the foundations of automated theorem proving. His unification algorithm eliminated one source of combinatorial explosion in resolution provers; it also prepared the ground for the logic programming paradigm, in particular for the Prolog language. Robinson received the 1996 Herbrand Award for Distinguished Contributions to Automated reasoning. Life Robinson was born in Halifax, Yorkshire, England in 1930 and left for the United States in 1952 with a classics degree from Cambridge University. He studied philosophy at the University of Oregon before moving to Princeton University where he received his PhD in philosophy in 1956. He then worked at Du Pont as an operations research analyst, where he learned programming and taught himself mathematics. He moved to Rice University ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine (; known to his friends as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century". From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor. He filled the Edgar Pierce Chair of Philosophy at Harvard from 1956 to 1978. Quine was a teacher of logic and set theory. Quine was famous for his position that first order logic is the only kind worthy of the name, and developed his own system of mathematics and set theory, known as New Foundations. In philosophy of mathematics, he and his Harvard colleague Hilary Putnam developed the Quine–Putnam indispensability argument, an argument for the reality of mathematical entities.Colyvan, Mark"Indispensability Arguments in the Philosophy of Mathematics" The Stanford Encyclopedi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Archie Blake (mathematician)
Archie Blake (born 1906) is an American mathematician. He is well known for the Blake canonical form, a normal form for expressions in propositional logic. In order to compute the canonical form, he moreover introduced the concept of consensus, which was a precursor of the resolution principle, today a common technique in automated theorem proving. Career In 1930 (or earlier), he became a member of the American Mathematical Society (AMS). He presented his canonical form at the AMS meeting at Columbia University on 29 Oct 1932. In 1937, this work lead to a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, supervised by Raymond Walter Barnard. He worked for the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in Washington, D.C., since 1936 (or earlier) as a Mathematician, since 1938 as an Assistant Mathematician, and since 1939 as an Associated Mathematician. In 1946, he was appointed a Senior Statistician in the Office of the Army Surgeon General, Washington, D.C. He also worked for the Cornell Aeronautica ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Digital Logic
A logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function, a logical operation performed on one or more Binary number, binary inputs that produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fanout, or it may refer to a nonideal physical device (see Ideal and real opamps for comparison). Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as switch#Electronic switches, electronic switches, but can also be constructed using vacuum tubes, electromagnetic relays (relay logic), fluidic logic, pneumatics#Pneumatic logic, pneumatic logic, optics, molecular logic gate, molecules, or even analytical engine, mechanical elements. Now, most logic gates are made from MOSFETs (metal–oxide–semiconductor fieldeffect transistors). With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Algebra (logic)
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is a branch of algebra. It differs from elementary algebra in two ways. First, the values of the variable (mathematics), variables are the truth values ''true'' and ''false'', usually denoted 1 and 0, whereas in elementary algebra the values of the variables are numbers. Second, Boolean algebra uses Logical connective, logical operators such as Logical conjunction, conjunction (''and'') denoted as ∧, Logical disjunction, disjunction (''or'') denoted as ∨, and the negation (''not'') denoted as ¬. Elementary algebra, on the other hand, uses arithmetic operators such as addition, multiplication, subtraction and division. So Boolean algebra is a formal way of describing logical operations, in the same way that elementary algebra describes numerical operations. Boolean algebra was introduced by George Boole in his first book ''The Mathematical Analysis of Logic'' (1847), and set forth more fully in his ''The Laws of Thought, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Blake Canonical Form
In Boolean logic, a formula for a Boolean function ''f'' is in Blake canonical form (BCF), also called the complete sum of prime implicants, the complete sum, or the disjunctive prime form, when it is a disjunction of all the prime implicants of ''f''. Relation to other forms The Blake canonical form is a special case of disjunctive normal form. The Blake canonical form is not necessarily minimal (upper diagram), however all the terms of a minimal sum are contained in the Blake canonical form. On the other hand, the Blake canonical form is a canonical form, that is, it is unique up to reordering, whereas there can be multiple minimal forms (lower diagram). Selecting a minimal sum from a Blake canonical form amounts in general to solving the set cover problem, so is NPhard. History Archie Blake presented his canonical form at a meeting of the American Mathematical Society in 1932, and in his 1937 dissertation. He called it the "simplified canonical form"; it was named the "B ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Propositional Calculus
Propositional calculus is a branch of logic. It is also called propositional logic, statement logic, sentential calculus, sentential logic, or sometimes zerothorder logic. It deals with propositions (which can be true or false) and relations between propositions, including the construction of arguments based on them. Compound propositions are formed by connecting propositions by logical connectives. Propositions that contain no logical connectives are called atomic propositions. Unlike firstorder logic, propositional logic does not deal with nonlogical objects, predicates about them, or Quantifier (logic), quantifiers. However, all the machinery of propositional logic is included in firstorder logic and higherorder logics. In this sense, propositional logic is the foundation of firstorder logic and higherorder logic. Explanation Logical connectives are found in natural languages. In English for example, some examples are "and" (logical conjunction, conjunction), "or" (lo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 