Committee On Data Of The International Science Council
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Committee On Data Of The International Science Council
The Committee on Data of the International Science Council (CODATA) was established in 1966 as the Committee on Data for Science and Technology, originally part of the International Council of Scientific Unions, now part of the International Science Council (ISC). CODATA exists to promote global collaboration to advance open science and to improve the availability and usability of data for all areas of research. CODATA supports the principle that data produced by research and susceptible to be used for research should be as open as possible and as closed as necessary. CODATA works also to advance the interoperability and the usability of such data: research data should be FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable). By promoting the policy, technological and cultural changes that are essential to promote open science, CODATA helps advance ISC's vision and mission of advancing science as a global public good. The CODATA Strategic Plan 2015 and Prospectus of Strat ...
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International Non-governmental Organization
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) is an organization which is independent of government involvement and extends the concept of a non-governmental organization (NGO) to an international scope. NGOs are independent of governments and can be seen as two types: ''advocacy NGOs'', which aim to influence governments with a specific goal, and ''operational NGOs'', which provide services. Examples of NGO mandates are environmental preservation, human rights promotions or the advancement of women. NGOs are typically not-for-profit, but receive funding from companies or membership fees. Many large INGOs have components of operational projects and advocacy initiatives working together within individual countries. The technical term " international organizations" describes intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and include groups such as the United Nations or the International Labour Organization, which are formed by treaties among sovereign states. In contrast, INGOs ar ...
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General Conference On Weights And Measures
The General Conference on Weights and Measures (GCWM; french: Conférence générale des poids et mesures, CGPM) is the supreme authority of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), the intergovernmental organization established in 1875 under the terms of the Metre Convention through which member states act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards. The CGPM is made up of delegates of the governments of the member states and observers from the Associates of the CGPM. Under its authority, the International Committee for Weights and Measures (ICWM; ) executes an exclusive direction and supervision of the BIPM. Initially the Metre Convention was only concerned with the kilogram and the metre, but in 1921 the scope of the treaty was extended to accommodate all physical measurements and hence all aspects of the metric system. In 1960 the 11th CGPM approved the International System of Units, usually known as "SI". The General Confer ...
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International Bureau Of Weights And Measures
The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (french: Bureau international des poids et mesures, BIPM) is an intergovernmental organisation, through which its 59 member-states act together on measurement standards in four areas: chemistry, ionising radiation, physical metrology, and coordinated universal time. It is based in Saint-Cloud, Paris, France. The organisation has been referred to as IBWM (from its name in English) in older literature. Structure The BIPM is supervised by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (french: Comité international des poids et mesures, CIPM), a committee of eighteen members that meet normally in two sessions per year, which is in turn overseen by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (french: Conférence générale des poids et mesures, CGPM) that meets in Paris usually once every four years, consisting of delegates of the governments of the Member States and observers from the Associates of the CGPM. These organ ...
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Metrologia
''Metrologia'' is a bimonthly journal dealing with the scientific aspects of metrology. It has been running since 1965 and has been published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures since 1991. Since 2003 the journal has been published by IOP Publishing on behalf of the bureau. The journal covers the fundamentals of measurements, in particular those dealing with the seven base units of the International System of Units (metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, candela, mole) or proposals to replace them. The editors-in-chief are Sten Bergstrand (RISE Research Institutes of Sweden) and Janet Miles (International Bureau of Weights and Measures). Abstracting and indexing This journal is indexed by the following databases: * Science Citation Index Expanded *Scopus * Inspec *Chemical Abstracts Service *Compendex *GeoRef *MathSciNet *Astrophysics Data System *VINITI Abstracts Journal VINITI Database RAS is a database provided by the All-Russian Institute for Sc ...
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NIST
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce whose mission is to promote American innovation and industrial competitiveness. NIST's activities are organized into physical science laboratory programs that include nanoscale science and technology, engineering, information technology, neutron research, material measurement, and physical measurement. From 1901 to 1988, the agency was named the National Bureau of Standards. History Background The Articles of Confederation, ratified by the colonies in 1781, provided: The United States in Congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states—fixing the standards of weights and measures throughout the United States. Article 1, section 8, of the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, granted these powers to the new Congr ...
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BIPM
The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (french: Bureau international des poids et mesures, BIPM) is an intergovernmental organisation, through which its 59 member-states act together on measurement standards in four areas: chemistry, ionising radiation, physical metrology, and coordinated universal time. It is based in Saint-Cloud, Paris, France. The organisation has been referred to as IBWM (from its name in English) in older literature. Structure The BIPM is supervised by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (french: Comité international des poids et mesures, CIPM), a committee of eighteen members that meet normally in two sessions per year, which is in turn overseen by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (french: Conférence générale des poids et mesures, CGPM) that meets in Paris usually once every four years, consisting of delegates of the governments of the Member States and observers from the Associates of the CGPM. These or ...
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Reviews Of Modern Physics
''Reviews of Modern Physics'' (abbreviated RMP) is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society. It was established in 1929 and the current editor-in-chief is Michael Thoennessen. The journal publishes review articles, usually by established researchers, on all aspects of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its fundamental constituents, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical science is that department of knowledge which ... and related fields. The reviews are usually accessible to non-specialists and serve as introductory material to graduate students, which survey recent work, discuss key problems to be solved and provide perspectives toward the end. References External links * Publications established in 1929 Physics review journals Quarterly journals English-language journals American Physical Society academic jour ...
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Journal Of Research Of The National Bureau Of Standards
The ''Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology'' is the flagship peer-reviewed scientific journal of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. It has been published since 1904. Its former name was ''Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards''. Its section D (''Radio Science'', 1964–1965; ''Radio Propagation'', 1959–1963) was continued as the ''Radio Science'' journal. The final editor-in-chief An editor-in-chief (EIC), also known as lead editor or chief editor, is a publication's editorial leader who has final responsibility for its operations and policies. The highest-ranking editor of a publication may also be titled editor, managing ... was Ron B. Goldfarb. Volume 126 is the last issue. References External links * National Institute of Standards and Technology Engineering journals English-language journals Bimonthly journals Publications established in 1904 Academic journals published by the United Sta ...
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Journal Of Physical And Chemical Reference Data
The ''Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by AIP Publishing on behalf of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The objective of the journal is to provide critically evaluated physical and chemical property data, fully documented as to the original sources and the criteria used for evaluation, preferably with uncertainty analysis. The editors-in-chief are Donald R. Burgess, Jr, and Allan H. Harvey. Abstracting and indexing The journal is abstracted and indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded and Current Contents/Physical Chemical and Earth Sciences. According to the ''Journal Citation Reports'', the journal has a 2018 impact factor The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a scientometric index calculated by Clarivate that reflects the yearly mean number of citations of articles published in the last two years in a given journal, as ... of 4.684 ...
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Particle Data Group
The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions. It also publishes reviews of theoretical results that are phenomenologically relevant, including those in related fields such as cosmology. The PDG currently publishes the ''Review of Particle Physics'' and its pocket version, the ''Particle Physics Booklet'', which are printed biennially as books, and updated annually via the World Wide Web. In previous years, the PDG has published the ''Pocket Diary for Physicists'', a calendar with the dates of key international conferences and contact information of major high energy physics institutions, which is now discontinued. PDG also further maintains the standard numbering scheme for particles in event generators, in association with the event generator authors. ''Review of Particle Physics'' The ''Review of Particle Physics'' (fo ...
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Commission On Isotopic Abundances And Atomic Weights
The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) is an international scientific committee of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) under its Division of Inorganic Chemistry. Since 1899, it is entrusted with periodic critical evaluation of atomic weights of chemical elements and other cognate data, such as the isotopic composition of elements. The biennial CIAAW Standard Atomic Weights are accepted as the authoritative source in science and appear worldwide on the periodic table wall charts. The use of CIAAW Standard Atomic Weights is also required legally, for example, in calculation of calorific value of natural gas (ISO 6976:1995), or in gravimetric preparation of primary reference standards in gas analysis (ISO 6142:2006). In addition, until 2019 the definition of kelvin, the SI unit for thermodynamic temperature, made direct reference to the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen as recommended by CIAAW. The latest CIAAW report ...
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Avogadro Constant
The Avogadro constant, commonly denoted or , is the proportionality factor that relates the number of constituent particles (usually molecules, atoms or ions) in a sample with the amount of substance in that sample. It is an SI defining constant with an exact value of . It is named after the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro by Stanislao Cannizzaro, who explained this number four years after Avogadro's death while at the Karlsruhe Congress in 1860. The numeric value of the Avogadro constant expressed in reciprocal moles, a dimensionless number, is called the Avogadro number. In older literature, the Avogadro number is denoted or , which is the number of particles that are contained in one mole, exactly . The Avogadro number is the approximate number of nucleons ( protons or neutrons) in one gram of ordinary matter. The value of the Avogadro constant was chosen so that the mass of one mole of a chemical compound, in grams, is approximately the number of nucleons in one c ...
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