Checksum
A checksum is a smallsized block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. By themselves, checksums are often used to verify data integrity but are not relied upon to verify data authenticity. The procedure which generates this checksum is called a checksum function or checksum algorithm. Depending on its design goals, a good checksum algorithm usually outputs a significantly different value, even for small changes made to the input. This is especially true of cryptographic hash functions, which may be used to detect many data corruption errors and verify overall data integrity; if the computed checksum for the current data input matches the stored value of a previously computed checksum, there is a very high probability the data has not been accidentally altered or corrupted. Checksum functions are related to hash functions, fingerprints, randomization functions ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Checksum
A checksum is a smallsized block of data derived from another block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors that may have been introduced during its transmission or storage. By themselves, checksums are often used to verify data integrity but are not relied upon to verify data authenticity. The procedure which generates this checksum is called a checksum function or checksum algorithm. Depending on its design goals, a good checksum algorithm usually outputs a significantly different value, even for small changes made to the input. This is especially true of cryptographic hash functions, which may be used to detect many data corruption errors and verify overall data integrity; if the computed checksum for the current data input matches the stored value of a previously computed checksum, there is a very high probability the data has not been accidentally altered or corrupted. Checksum functions are related to hash functions, fingerprints, randomization functions ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fletcher's Checksum
The Fletcher checksum is an algorithm for computing a positiondependent checksum devised by John G. Fletcher (1934–2012) at Lawrence Livermore Labs in the late 1970s. The objective of the Fletcher checksum was to provide errordetection properties approaching those of a cyclic redundancy check but with the lower computational effort associated with summation techniques. The algorithm Review of simple checksums As with simpler checksum algorithms, the Fletcher checksum involves dividing the binary data word to be protected from errors into short "blocks" of bits and computing the modular sum of those blocks. (Note that the terminology used in this domain can be confusing. The data to be protected, in its entirety, is referred to as a "word", and the pieces into which it is divided are referred to as "blocks".) As an example, the data may be a message to be transmitted consisting of 136 characters, each stored as an 8bit byte, making a data word of 1088 bits in total. A co ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cyclic Redundancy Check
A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an errordetecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to digital data. Blocks of data entering these systems get a short ''check value'' attached, based on the remainder of a polynomial division of their contents. On retrieval, the calculation is repeated and, in the event the check values do not match, corrective action can be taken against data corruption. CRCs can be used for error correction (see bitfilters). CRCs are so called because the ''check'' (data verification) value is a ''redundancy'' (it expands the message without adding information) and the algorithm is based on ''cyclic'' codes. CRCs are popular because they are simple to implement in binary hardware, easy to analyze mathematically, and particularly good at detecting common errors caused by noise in transmission channels. Because the check value has a fixed length, the function that generates it is occasionally used as a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Error Detection
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction (EDAC) or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels. Many communication channels are subject to channel noise, and thus errors may be introduced during transmission from the source to a receiver. Error detection techniques allow detecting such errors, while error correction enables reconstruction of the original data in many cases. Definitions ''Error detection'' is the detection of errors caused by noise or other impairments during transmission from the transmitter to the receiver. ''Error correction'' is the detection of errors and reconstruction of the original, errorfree data. History In classical antiquity, copyists of the Hebrew Bible were paid for their work according to the number of stichs (lines of verse). As the prose books of the Bible were hardly ever ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Adler32
Adler32 is a checksum algorithm written by Mark Adler in 1995, modifying Fletcher's checksum. Compared to a cyclic redundancy check of the same length, it trades reliability for speed (preferring the latter). Adler32 is more reliable than Fletcher16, and slightly less reliable than Fletcher32. History The Adler32 checksum is part of the widely used zlib compression library, as both were developed by Mark Adler. A "rolling checksum" version of Adler32 is used in the rsync utility. Calculation An Adler32 checksum is obtained by calculating two 16bit checksums ''A'' and ''B'' and concatenating their bits into a 32bit integer. ''A'' is the sum of all bytes in the stream plus one, and ''B'' is the sum of the individual values of ''A'' from each step. At the beginning of an Adler32 run, ''A'' is initialized to 1, ''B'' to 0. The sums are done modular arithmetic, modulo 65521 (the largest prime number smaller than 216). The bytes are stored in network order (endianness, big ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Checksum Algorithm
A cryptographic hash function (CHF) is a hash algorithm (a map of an arbitrary binary string to a binary string with fixed size of n bits) that has special properties desirable for cryptography: * the probability of a particular nbit output result (hash value) for a random input string ("message") is 2^ (like for any good hash), so the hash value can be used as a representative of the message; * finding an input string that matches a given hash value (a ''preimage'') is unfeasible, unless the value is selected from a known precalculated dictionary (" rainbow table"). The ''resistance'' to such search is quantified as security strength, a cryptographic hash with n bits of hash value is expected to have a ''preimage resistance'' strength of n bits. A ''second preimage'' resistance strength, with the same expectations, refers to a similar problem of finding a second message that matches the given hash value when one message is already known; * finding any pair of different messa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cryptographic Hash Function
A cryptographic hash function (CHF) is a hash algorithm (a map of an arbitrary binary string to a binary string with fixed size of n bits) that has special properties desirable for cryptography: * the probability of a particular nbit output result (hash value) for a random input string ("message") is 2^ (like for any good hash), so the hash value can be used as a representative of the message; * finding an input string that matches a given hash value (a ''preimage'') is unfeasible, unless the value is selected from a known precalculated dictionary (" rainbow table"). The ''resistance'' to such search is quantified as security strength, a cryptographic hash with n bits of hash value is expected to have a ''preimage resistance'' strength of n bits. A ''second preimage'' resistance strength, with the same expectations, refers to a similar problem of finding a second message that matches the given hash value when one message is already known; * finding any pair of different messa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Check Digit
A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection on identification numbers, such as bank account numbers, which are used in an application where they will at least sometimes be input manually. It is analogous to a binary parity bit used to check for errors in computergenerated data. It consists of one or more digits (or letters) computed by an algorithm from the other digits (or letters) in the sequence input. With a check digit, one can detect simple errors in the input of a series of characters (usually digits) such as a single mistyped digit or some permutations of two successive digits. Design Check digit algorithms are generally designed to capture ''human'' transcription errors. In order of complexity, these include the following: * letter/digit errors, such as l → 1 or O → 0 * singledigit errors, such as 1 → 2 * transposition errors, such as 12 → 21 * twin errors, such as 11 → 22 * jump transpositions errors, such as 132 → 231 * jump twi ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm () is a finite sequence of rigorous instructions, typically used to solve a class of specific Computational problem, problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are used as specifications for performing calculations and data processing. More advanced algorithms can perform automated deductions (referred to as automated reasoning) and use mathematical and logical tests to divert the code execution through various routes (referred to as automated decisionmaking). Using human characteristics as descriptors of machines in metaphorical ways was already practiced by Alan Turing with terms such as "memory", "search" and "stimulus". In contrast, a Heuristic (computer science), heuristic is an approach to problem solving that may not be fully specified or may not guarantee correct or optimal results, especially in problem domains where there is no welldefined correct or optimal result. As an effective method, an algorithm ca ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Byte
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit of memory in many computer architectures. To disambiguate arbitrarily sized bytes from the common 8bit definition, network protocol documents such as The Internet Protocol () refer to an 8bit byte as an octet. Those bits in an octet are usually counted with numbering from 0 to 7 or 7 to 0 depending on the bit endianness. The first bit is number 0, making the eighth bit number 7. The size of the byte has historically been hardwaredependent and no definitive standards existed that mandated the size. Sizes from 1 to 48 bits have been used. The sixbit character code was an oftenused implementation in early encoding systems, and computers using sixbit and ninebit bytes were common in the 1960s. These systems often had memory words ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Analysis Of Algorithms
In computer science, the analysis of algorithms is the process of finding the computational complexity of algorithms—the amount of time, storage, or other resources needed to execute them. Usually, this involves determining a function that relates the size of an algorithm's input to the number of steps it takes (its time complexity) or the number of storage locations it uses (its space complexity). An algorithm is said to be efficient when this function's values are small, or grow slowly compared to a growth in the size of the input. Different inputs of the same size may cause the algorithm to have different behavior, so best, worst and average case descriptions might all be of practical interest. When not otherwise specified, the function describing the performance of an algorithm is usually an upper bound, determined from the worst case inputs to the algorithm. The term "analysis of algorithms" was coined by Donald Knuth. Algorithm analysis is an important part of a broader ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Digital Data
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is information represented as a string of discrete symbols each of which can take on one of only a finite number of values from some alphabet, such as letters or digits. An example is a text document, which consists of a string of alphanumeric characters . The most common form of digital data in modern information systems is ''binary data'', which is represented by a string of binary digits (bits) each of which can have one of two values, either 0 or 1. Digital data can be contrasted with ''analog data'', which is represented by a value from a continuous range of real numbers. Analog data is transmitted by an analog signal, which not only takes on continuous values, but can vary continuously with time, a continuous realvalued function of time. An example is the air pressure variation in a sound wave. The word ''digital'' comes from the same source as the words digit and ''digitus'' (the Latin word for ''finger'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 