Chebyshev Function
In mathematics, the Chebyshev function is either a scalarising function (Tchebycheff function) or one of two related functions. The first Chebyshev function or is given by :\vartheta(x)=\sum_ \ln p where \ln denotes the natural logarithm, with the sum extending over all prime numbers that are less than or equal to . The second Chebyshev function is defined similarly, with the sum extending over all prime powers not exceeding : \psi(x) = \sum_\sum_\ln p=\sum_ \Lambda(n) = \sum_\left\lfloor\log_p x\right\rfloor\ln p, where is the von Mangoldt function. The Chebyshev functions, especially the second one , are often used in proofs related to prime numbers, because it is typically simpler to work with them than with the primecounting function, (See the exact formula, below.) Both Chebyshev functions are asymptotic to , a statement equivalent to the prime number theorem. Tchebycheff function, Chebyshev utility function, or weighted Tchebycheff scalarizing func ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Explicit Formulae (Lfunction)
In mathematics, the explicit formulae for Lfunctions are relations between sums over the complex number zeroes of an Lfunction and sums over prime powers, introduced by for the Riemann zeta function. Such explicit formulae have been applied also to questions on bounding the discriminant of an algebraic number field, and the conductor of a number field. Riemann's explicit formula In his 1859 paper "On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude" Riemann sketched an explicit formula (it was not fully proven until 1895 by von Mangoldt, see below) for the normalized primecounting function which is related to the primecounting function by :\pi_0(x) = \frac \lim_ \left ,\pi(x+h) + \pi(xh)\,\right,, which takes the arithmetic mean of the limit from the left and the limit from the right at discontinuities. His formula was given in terms of the related function :f(x) = \pi_0(x) + \frac\,\pi_0(x^) + \frac\,\pi_0(x^) + \cdots in which a prime power counts as of a prime. ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pierre Dusart
Pierre Dusart is a French mathematician at the UniversitĂ© de Limoges who specializes in number theory Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and arithmetic function, integervalued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777â .... He has published"The ''k''th prime is greater than ''k(ln k + ln ln k1)'' for ''k''>=2".Mathematics of Computation 68 (1999), pp. 411–415."ESTIMATES OF SOME FUNCTIONS OVER PRIMES". Notes and references French mathematicians Living people Year of birth missing (living people) {{Francemathematicianstub ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Statistical Mechanics
In physics, statistical mechanics is a mathematical framework that applies statistical methods and probability theory to large assemblies of microscopic entities. It does not assume or postulate any natural laws, but explains the macroscopic behavior of nature from the behavior of such ensembles. Statistical mechanics arose out of the development of classical thermodynamics, a field for which it was successful in explaining macroscopic physical propertiesâ€”such as temperature, pressure, and heat capacityâ€”in terms of microscopic parameters that fluctuate about average values and are characterized by probability distributions. This established the fields of statistical thermodynamics and statistical physics. The founding of the field of statistical mechanics is generally credited to three physicists: *Ludwig Boltzmann, who developed the fundamental interpretation of entropy in terms of a collection of microstates *James Clerk Maxwell, who developed models of probability distr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alain Connes
Alain Connes (; born 1 April 1947) is a French mathematician, and a theoretical physicist, known for his contributions to the study of operator algebras and noncommutative geometry. He is a professor at the , , Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1982. Career Source: Academic career timeline: (1966â€“1970) â€“ Bachelor's degree from the Ă‰cole Normale SupĂ©rieure (now part of Paris Sciences et Lettres University). (1973) â€“ doctorate from Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France (1970â€“1974) â€“ appointment at the French National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris (1975) â€“ Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario, Canada (1976â€“1980) â€“ the University of Paris VI (1979 â€“ present) â€“ the Institute of Advanced Scientific Studies, BuressurYvette, France (1981â€“1984) â€“ the French National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris (1984â€“2017) â€“ the , Paris (2003â€“2011) â€“ Vanderbilt University, Na ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Big O Notation
Big ''O'' notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. Big O is a member of a family of notations invented by Paul Bachmann, Edmund Landau, and others, collectively called Bachmannâ€“Landau notation or asymptotic notation. The letter O was chosen by Bachmann to stand for ''Ordnung'', meaning the order of approximation. In computer science, big O notation is used to classify algorithms according to how their run time or space requirements grow as the input size grows. In analytic number theory, big O notation is often used to express a bound on the difference between an arithmetical function and a better understood approximation; a famous example of such a difference is the remainder term in the prime number theorem. Big O notation is also used in many other fields to provide similar estimates. Big O notation characterizes functions according to their growth rates: d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Primorial
In mathematics, and more particularly in number theory, primorial, denoted by "#", is a function from natural numbers to natural numbers similar to the factorial function, but rather than successively multiplying positive integers, the function only multiplies prime numbers. The name "primorial", coined by Harvey Dubner, draws an analogy to ''primes'' similar to the way the name "factorial" relates to ''factors''. Definition for prime numbers For the th prime number , the primorial is defined as the product of the first primes: :p_n\# = \prod_^n p_k, where is the th prime number. For instance, signifies the product of the first 5 primes: :p_5\# = 2 \times 3 \times 5 \times 7 \times 11 = 2310. The first five primorials are: : 2, 6, 30, 210, 2310 . The sequence also includes as empty product. Asymptotically, primorials grow according to: :p_n\# = e^, where is Little O notation. Definition for natural numbers In general, for a positive integer , its pri ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

BigO Notation
Big ''O'' notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. Big O is a member of a family of notations invented by Paul Bachmann, Edmund Landau, and others, collectively called Bachmannâ€“Landau notation or asymptotic notation. The letter O was chosen by Bachmann to stand for ''Ordnung'', meaning the order of approximation. In computer science, big O notation is used to classify algorithms according to how their run time or space requirements grow as the input size grows. In analytic number theory, big O notation is often used to express a bound on the difference between an arithmetical function and a better understood approximation; a famous example of such a difference is the remainder term in the prime number theorem. Big O notation is also used in many other fields to provide similar estimates. Big O notation characterizes functions according to their growth rates: dif ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Erhard Schmidt
Erhard Schmidt (13 January 1876 â€“ 6 December 1959) was a Baltic German mathematician whose work significantly influenced the direction of mathematics in the twentieth century. Schmidt was born in Tartu (german: link=no, Dorpat), in the Governorate of Livonia (now Estonia). Mathematics His advisor was David Hilbert and he was awarded his doctorate from University of GĂ¶ttingen in 1905. His doctoral dissertation was entitled ''Entwickelung willkĂĽrlicher Funktionen nach Systemen vorgeschriebener'' and was a work on integral equations. Together with David Hilbert he made important contributions to functional analysis. Ernst Zermelo credited conversations with Schmidt for the idea and method for his classic 1904 proof of the Wellordering theorem from an "Axiom of choice", which has become an integral part of modern set theory. After the war, in 1948, Schmidt founded and became the first editorinchief of the journal ''Mathematische Nachrichten''. National Socialism During ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Pole (complex Analysis)
In complex analysis (a branch of mathematics), a pole is a certain type of singularity of a complexvalued function of a complex variable. In some sense, it is the simplest type of singularity. Technically, a point is a pole of a function if it is a zero of the function and is holomorphic in some neighbourhood of (that is, complex differentiable in a neighbourhood of ). A function is meromorphic in an open set if for every point of there is a neighborhood of in which either or is holomorphic. If is meromorphic in , then a zero of is a pole of , and a pole of is a zero of . This induces a duality between ''zeros'' and ''poles'', that is fundamental for the study of meromorphic functions. For example, if a function is meromorphic on the whole complex plane plus the point at infinity, then the sum of the multiplicities of its poles equals the sum of the multiplicities of its zeros. Definitions A function of a complex variable is holomorphic in an open domai ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Logarithm
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation. That means the logarithm of a number to the base is the exponent to which must be raised, to produce . For example, since , the ''logarithm base'' 10 of is , or . The logarithm of to ''base'' is denoted as , or without parentheses, , or even without the explicit base, , when no confusion is possible, or when the base does not matter such as in big O notation. The logarithm base is called the decimal or common logarithm and is commonly used in science and engineering. The natural logarithm has the number as its base; its use is widespread in mathematics and physics, because of its very simple derivative. The binary logarithm uses base and is frequently used in computer science. Logarithms were introduced by John Napier in 1614 as a means of simplifying calculations. They were rapidly adopted by navigators, scientists, engineers, surveyors and others to perform higha ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 