Cauchy
Baron AugustinLouis Cauchy (, ; ; 21 August 178923 May 1857) was a French mathematician, engineer, and physicist who made pioneering contributions to several branches of mathematics, including mathematical analysis and continuum mechanics. He was one of the first to state and rigorously prove theorems of calculus, rejecting the heuristic principle of the generality of algebra of earlier authors. He almost singlehandedly founded complex analysis and the study of permutation groups in abstract algebra. A profound mathematician, Cauchy had a great influence over his contemporaries and successors; Hans Freudenthal stated: "More concepts and theorems have been named for Cauchy than for any other mathematician (in Elasticity (physics), elasticity alone there are sixteen concepts and theorems named for Cauchy)." Cauchy was a prolific writer; he wrote approximately eight hundred research articles and five complete textbooks on a variety of topics in the fields of mathematics and mathema ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

List Of Topics Named After AugustinLouis Cauchy
Things named after the 19thcentury French mathematician AugustinLouis Cauchy include: * Binet–Cauchy identity * Intermediate value theorem, Bolzano–Cauchy theorem * Cauchy's argument principle * Cauchy–Binet formula * Cauchy–Born rule * Cauchy boundary condition * Geometrical_properties_of_polynomial_roots#Lagrange's_and_Cauchy's_bounds, Cauchy bounds * Completeness_of_the_real_numbers#Cauchy_completeness, Cauchy completeness * Karoubi envelope, Cauchy completion * Cauchy condensation test * Cauchycontinuous function * Cauchy's convergence test * Cauchy (crater) * Restricted_sumset#Cauchy–Davenport_theorem, Cauchy–Davenport theorem * Cauchy determinant * Cauchy distribution **LogCauchy distribution **Wrapped Cauchy distribution * Cauchy elastic material * Cauchy's equation * Cauchy–Euler equation * Cauchy's functional equation * Uniform_space#Cauchy_filter, Cauchy filter * Cauchy formula for repeated integration * Cauchy–Frobenius lemma * Finite_strain_theory#Th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Viktor Bunyakovsky
Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky (russian: Ви́ктор Я́ковлевич Буняко́вский, uk, Ві́ктор Я́кович Буняко́вський; , Bar, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire – , St. Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Ukrainian mathematician, member and later vice president of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Bunyakovsky was a mathematician, noted for his work in theoretical mechanics and number theory (see: Bunyakovsky conjecture), and is credited with an early discovery of the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, proving it for the infinite dimensional case as well as for definite integrals of realvalued functions in 1859, many years prior to Hermann Schwarz's works on the subject. Biography Viktor Yakovlevich Bunyakovsky was born in Bar, Podolia Governorate, Russian Empire (now Ukraine) in 1804. Bunyakovsky was a son of Colonel Yakov Vasilievich Bunyakovsky of a cavalry regiment, who was killed in Finland in 1809. Education Bunyakovsky obtained ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Limit (mathematics)
In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) approaches as the input (or index) approaches some value. Limits are essential to calculus and mathematical analysis, and are used to define continuity, derivatives, and integrals. The concept of a limit of a sequence is further generalized to the concept of a limit of a topological net, and is closely related to limit and direct limit in category theory. In formulas, a limit of a function is usually written as : \lim_ f(x) = L, (although a few authors may use "Lt" instead of "lim") and is read as "the limit of of as approaches equals ". The fact that a function approaches the limit as approaches is sometimes denoted by a right arrow (→ or \rightarrow), as in :f(x) \to L \text x \to c, which reads "f of x tends to L as x tends to c". History Grégoire de SaintVincent gave the first definition of limit (terminus) of a geometric series in his work ''Opus Geometricum'' (1647): "The ''terminus'' of a pro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuum Mechanics
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles. The French mathematician AugustinLouis Cauchy was the first to formulate such models in the 19th century. Explanation A continuum model assumes that the substance of the object fills the space it occupies. Modeling objects in this way ignores the fact that matter is made of atoms, and so is not continuous; however, on length scales much greater than that of interatomic distances, such models are highly accurate. These models can be used to derive differential equations that describe the behavior of such objects using physical laws, such as mass conservation, momentum conservation, and energy conservation, and some information about the material is provided by constitutive relationships. Continuum mechanics deals with the physical properties of solids and fluids which are independent of any particular coordinate sy ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Continuum Mechanics
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles. The French mathematician AugustinLouis Cauchy was the first to formulate such models in the 19th century. Explanation A continuum model assumes that the substance of the object fills the space it occupies. Modeling objects in this way ignores the fact that matter is made of atoms, and so is not continuous; however, on length scales much greater than that of interatomic distances, such models are highly accurate. These models can be used to derive differential equations that describe the behavior of such objects using physical laws, such as mass conservation, momentum conservation, and energy conservation, and some information about the material is provided by constitutive relationships. Continuum mechanics deals with the physical properties of solids and fluids which are independent of any particular coordinate sy ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Complex Analysis
Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates Function (mathematics), functions of complex numbers. It is helpful in many branches of mathematics, including algebraic geometry, number theory, analytic combinatorics, applied mathematics; as well as in physics, including the branches of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and particularly quantum mechanics. By extension, use of complex analysis also has applications in engineering fields such as nuclear engineering, nuclear, aerospace engineering, aerospace, mechanical engineering, mechanical and electrical engineering. As a differentiable function of a complex variable is equal to its Taylor series (that is, it is Analyticity of holomorphic functions, analytic), complex analysis is particularly concerned with analytic functions of a complex variable (that is, holomorphic functions). History Complex analysis is one of the classical ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Intermediate Value Theorem
In mathematical analysis, the intermediate value theorem states that if f is a continuous function whose domain contains the interval , then it takes on any given value between f(a) and f(b) at some point within the interval. This has two important corollaries: # If a continuous function has values of opposite sign inside an interval, then it has a root in that interval (Bolzano's theorem). # The image of a continuous function over an interval is itself an interval. Motivation This captures an intuitive property of continuous functions over the real numbers: given ''f'' continuous on ,2/math> with the known values f(1) = 3 and f(2) = 5, then the graph of y = f(x) must pass through the horizontal line y = 4 while x moves from 1 to 2. It represents the idea that the graph of a continuous function on a closed interval can be drawn without lifting a pencil from the paper. Theorem The intermediate value theorem states the following: Consider an interval I = ,b/math> of real n ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limit (mathematics), limits, and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, measure (mathematics), measure, infinite sequences, series (mathematics), series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of Real number, real and Complex number, complex numbers and Function (mathematics), functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any Space (mathematics), space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space). History Ancient Mathematical analysis formally developed in the 17th century during the Scientific Revolution, but many of its ideas can be traced back to earlier mathematicians. Early results in analysis were i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Analysis
Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with continuous functions, limit (mathematics), limits, and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, measure (mathematics), measure, infinite sequences, series (mathematics), series, and analytic functions. These theories are usually studied in the context of Real number, real and Complex number, complex numbers and Function (mathematics), functions. Analysis evolved from calculus, which involves the elementary concepts and techniques of analysis. Analysis may be distinguished from geometry; however, it can be applied to any Space (mathematics), space of mathematical objects that has a definition of nearness (a topological space) or specific distances between objects (a metric space). History Ancient Mathematical analysis formally developed in the 17th century during the Scientific Revolution, but many of its ideas can be traced back to earlier mathematicians. Early results in analysis were i ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Calculus
Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape, and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous Rate of change (mathematics), rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while the latter concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence (mathematics), convergence of infinite sequences and Series (mathematics), infinite series to a welldefined limit (mathematics), limit. Infinitesimal calculus was developed independently in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Later work, including (ε, δ)definition of limit, codify ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Gradient Descent
In mathematics, gradient descent (also often called steepest descent) is a firstorder iterative optimization algorithm for finding a local minimum of a differentiable function. The idea is to take repeated steps in the opposite direction of the gradient (or approximate gradient) of the function at the current point, because this is the direction of steepest descent. Conversely, stepping in the direction of the gradient will lead to a local maximum of that function; the procedure is then known as gradient ascent. Gradient descent is generally attributed to AugustinLouis Cauchy, who first suggested it in 1847. Jacques Hadamard independently proposed a similar method in 1907. Its convergence properties for nonlinear optimization problems were first studied by Haskell Curry in 1944, with the method becoming increasingly wellstudied and used in the following decades. Description Gradient descent is based on the observation that if the multivariable function F(\mathbf) is def ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spectral Theorem
In mathematics, particularly linear algebra and functional analysis, a spectral theorem is a result about when a linear operator or matrix (mathematics), matrix can be Diagonalizable matrix, diagonalized (that is, represented as a diagonal matrix in some basis). This is extremely useful because computations involving a diagonalizable matrix can often be reduced to much simpler computations involving the corresponding diagonal matrix. The concept of diagonalization is relatively straightforward for operators on finitedimensional vector spaces but requires some modification for operators on infinitedimensional spaces. In general, the spectral theorem identifies a class of linear operators that can be modeled by multiplication operators, which are as simple as one can hope to find. In more abstract language, the spectral theorem is a statement about commutative C*algebras. See also spectral theory for a historical perspective. Examples of operators to which the spectral theorem appl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 