Brass
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Brass
Brass is an alloy An alloy is a mixture of chemical elements of which at least one is a metal. Unlike chemical compounds with metallic bases, an alloy will retain all the properties of a metal in the resulting material, such as electrical conductivity, ductility, ... of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), in proportions which can be varied to achieve different mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. Brass is similar to bronze Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (including aluminium, manganese, nickel, or zinc) and sometimes non-metals, such as phosphorus, or metalloids such ..., another copper alloy, that uses tin instead of zinc. Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other elements including arsenic (As), lead (Pb), phosphorus (P ...
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Brass Lectern In The Form Of An Eagle Attributed To Aert Van Tricht The Elder, Limburg (Netherlands), C
Brass is an alloy of copper, copper (Cu) and zinc, zinc (Zn), in proportions which can be varied to achieve different mechanical, electrical, and chemical properties. It is a substitutional alloy: atoms of the two constituents may replace each other within the same crystal structure. Brass is similar to bronze, another copper alloy, that uses tin instead of zinc. Both bronze and brass may include small proportions of a range of other Chemical element, elements including arsenic, arsenic (As), lead, lead (Pb), phosphorus, phosphorus (P), aluminium, aluminium (Al), manganese, manganese (Mn), and silicon, silicon (Si). Historically, the distinction between the two alloys has been less consistent and clear, and modern practice in museums and archaeology increasingly avoids both terms for historical objects in favor of the more general "List of copper alloys, copper alloy". Brass has long been a popular material for decoration due to its bright, gold-like appearance; being used fo ...
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List Of Copper Alloys
Copper alloys are metal alloys that have copper as their principal component. They have high resistance against corrosion. The best known traditional types are bronze, where tin is a significant addition, and brass, using zinc instead. Both of these are imprecise terms, having both been commonly referred to as lattens in the past. Today the term ''copper alloy'' tends to be substituted, especially by museums. Composition The similarity in external appearance of the various alloys, along with the different combinations of elements used when making each alloy, can lead to confusion when categorizing the different compositions. There are as many as 400 different copper and copper alloy compositions loosely grouped into the categories: copper, high copper alloy, brasses, bronzes, copper nickels, copper–nickel–zinc (nickel silver), leaded copper, and special alloys. The following table lists the principal alloying element for four of the more common types used in modern i ...
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Zinc
Zinc is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Zn and atomic number 30. Zinc is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature and has a shiny-greyish appearance when oxidation is removed. It is the first element in group 12 element, group 12 (IIB) of the periodic table. In some respects, zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size.The elements are from different metal groups. See periodic table. Zinc is the 24th most abundant Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, Roasting (metallurgy), roasting, and final extractive metallurgy, extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Zinc is an essential trace element fo ...
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Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a Copper (color), pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material#Metal, building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals that can occur in nature in a directly usable metallic form (native metals). This led to very early human use in several regions, from circa 8000 BC. Thousands of years later, it was the first metal to be Smelting, smelted from sulfide ores, circa 5000 BC; the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. ...
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Door Handle
A door handle or doorknob is a handle used to open or close a door. Door handles can be found on all types of doors including exterior doors of residential and commercial buildings, internal doors, cupboard doors and vehicle doors. There are many designs of door handle, depending on the appropriate use. A large number of handles, particularly for commercial and residential doors, incorporate latching or locking mechanisms or are manufactured to fit to standardised door locking or latching mechanisms. The most common types of door handle are the lever handle and the doorknob. Door handles can be made out of a plethora of materials. Examples include brass, porcelain, cut glass, wood, and bronze. Door handles have been in existence for at least 5000 years, and its design has evolved since, with more advanced mechanism, types, and designs made. Some door handles are also arm- or foot-operated to reduce transmission of contagious illnesses. Types *The most common type of door hand ...
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Bronze
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (including aluminium, manganese, nickel, or zinc) and sometimes non-metals, such as phosphorus, or metalloids such as arsenic or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as ultimate tensile strength, strength, ductility, or machinability. The three-age system, archaeological period in which bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in western Eurasia and India is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BCE (~3500 BCE), and to the early 2nd millennium BCE in China; elsewhere it gradually spread across regions. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age starting from about 1300 BCE and reaching most of Eurasia by about 500 BCE, although bronze continued to be much more widely used than it is in mod ...
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Lathe
A lathe () is a machine tool that rotates a workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, Deformation (engineering), deformation, facing (machining), facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with rotational symmetry, symmetry about that axis. Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, thermal spraying, parts reclamation, and glass-working. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the Potter's wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most Solid of revolution, solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helix, helices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The workpiece is usually held in place by either one or two ''centers'', at least one of which can typically be moved horizontally to accommodate varying workpiece lengths. Other wo ...
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Aluminium
Aluminium (aluminum in American and Canadian English) is a chemical element A chemical element is a species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei, including the pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of that species. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elements canno ... with the symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminium has a density lower than those of other common metals, at approximately one third that of steel. It has a great affinity towards oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element with the chemical symbol, symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen Group (periodic table), group in the periodic table, a highly Chemical reaction, reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing a ..., and forms a protective layer of oxide on the surface when exposed to air. Aluminium visually resembles silver, both in its color and in its great ability to reflect light. It is soft, non-magnetic and du ...
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Friction
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding (motion), sliding against each other. There are several types of friction: *Dry friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into ''static friction'' ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and ''kinetic friction'' between moving surfaces. With the exception of atomic or molecular friction, dry friction generally arises from the interaction of surface features, known as Asperity (materials science), asperities (see Figure 1). *Fluid friction describes the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other. *Lubricated friction is a case of fluid friction where a lubricant fluid separates two solid surfaces. *Skin friction is a component of Drag (physics), drag, the force resisting the motion of a fluid across the surface of a body. *Internal friction is t ...
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Drawer Pull
A drawer pull (wire pull or simply pull) is a handle to pull a drawer out of a chest of drawers, cabinet or other furniture piece. A drawer pull often includes a plate to which the handle is fastened. The handle may swing from one or two mounts ("drop handle" or "swing handle"), making a drop drawer pull. A bail handle is a kind of swing handle consisting of an open loop attached to two mounts. The handle may also be fastened to the plate with rivet A rivet is a permanent mechanical fastener. Before being installed, a rivet consists of a smooth cylinder (geometry), cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. The end opposite to the head is called the ''tail''. On installation, the rivet is ...s, making it immovable. The plate may be ornamented by piercing, embossing, or both. The ornament may also be cut on the surface with tools, leaving it sunken into the metal. The stock for handles may be round, rectangular, or irregular forged shapes. Thomas Francis Googerty (19 ...
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Padlock
Padlocks are portable Lock (security device), locks with a shackle that may be passed through an opening (such as a chain, chain link, or hasp staple) to prevent wikt:use, use, theft, vandalism or harm. Naming and etymology The term '':wikt:padlock#English, padlock'' is from the late fifteenth century. The prefix pad- is of unknown origin; it is combined with the noun Lock and key, lock, from Old English ''loc'', related to German ''loch'', "hole". History There are padlocks dating to the Roman Era, 500 BC – 300 AD. They were known in early times by merchants traveling the ancient trade routes to Asia, including China. Padlocks have been used in Europe since the middle La Tène culture, La Tène period, subsequently spreading to the Roman world and the Przeworsk culture, Przeworsk and Chernyakhov cultures.Katarzyna Czarnecka, "Padlocks In The Przeworsk And The Chernyakhov Cultures In The Late Roman Period, As An Evidence Of Mutual Contacts." Roman padlocks had a long bent r ...
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Gear
A gear is a rotating circular machine (mechanical), machine part having cut teeth or, in the case of a cogwheel or gearwheel, inserted teeth (called ''cogs''), which mesh with another (compatible) toothed part to transmit (convert) torque and speed. The basic principle behind the operation of gears is analogous to the basic principle of levers. A gear may also be known informally as a cog. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a Power (physics), power source. Gears of different sizes produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their ''gear ratio'', and thus may be considered a simple machine. The rotational speeds, and the torques, of two meshing gears differ in proportion to their diameters. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear train or a ''transmission (mechanics), transmission''. The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels ...
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