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Bishops (genus)
''Bishops'' is an extinct genus of mammals from Early Cretaceous of Australia. The only recorded species, ''Bishops whitmorei'', was found on Flat Rocks, Wonthaggi Formation, Victoria. The genus was named in honour of the Dr Barry Bishop, the former Chairman of the Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society. References * Rich, T. H.; Flannery, T. F.; Trusler, P.; Kool, L.; van Klaveren, N. A. & Vickers-Rich, P. 2001. "A second tribosphenic mammal from the Mesozoic of Australia." ''Records of the Queen Victoria Museum'' 110: 1–9. Cretaceous mammals of Australia Australosphenida Extinct mammals of Australia Prehistoric mammal genera {{Cretaceous-animal-stub ...
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Early Cretaceous
The Early Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous. It is usually considered to stretch from 145 Ma to 100.5 Ma. Geology Proposals for the exact age of the Barremian-Aptian boundary ranged from 126 to 117 Ma until recently (as of 2019), but based on drillholes in Svalbard the defining early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) was carbon isotope dated to 123.1±0.3 Ma, limiting the possible range for the boundary to c. 121–122 Ma. There is a possible link between this anoxic event and a series of Early Cretaceous large igneous provinces (LIP). The Ontong Java-Manihiki-Hikurangi large igneous province, emplaced in the South Pacific at c. 120 Ma, is by far the largest LIP in Earth's history. The Ontong Java Plateau today covers an area of 1,860,000 km2. In the Indian Ocean another LIP began to form at c. 120 Ma, the Kerguelen Plateau ...
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Mammal
Mammals (from Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the Carboniferous, over 300 million years ago. Around 6,400 extant species of mammals have been described. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Eulipotyphla (hedgehogs, moles, shrews, and others). The next three are the Primates (including humans, apes, monkeys, and others), the Artiodactyla (cetaceans and even-toed ungulates), and the Carnivora (cats, dogs, seals, and others). In terms of cladistics, which reflects evolutionary history, mammals are the only living members of the Synapsida; this clade, together with Sauropsida (reptiles and birds), constitutes the larger Amniota cl ...
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Australia
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Its population of nearly million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of a ...
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Wonthaggi Formation
The Wonthaggi Formation is an informal geological formation in Victoria, Australia whose strata date back to the Early Cretaceous. It is part of the Strzelecki Group within the Gippsland Basin. Dinosaur remains are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation.Weishampel, David B; ''et al.'' (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Early Cretaceous, Australasia)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 573-574. . It is partially equivalent to the Eumeralla Formation. Geology The Wonthaggi Formation was deposited within the extensional rift valley formed between Australia and Antarctica. The lithology primarily consists of fluvially deposited siliciclastics derived from volcanic rocks of the Whitsunday Silicic Large Igneous Province to the East, with suggestions that the sediments either originated from braided river and sheet flood deposits, or meandering river systems on veget ...
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Victoria (Australia)
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in southeastern Australia. It is the second-smallest state with a land area of and the most densely populated state in Australia (28 per km2). Victoria is bordered with New South Wales to the north and South Australia to the west, and is bounded by the Bass Strait (which separates it from the island state of Tasmania) to the south,Due to a previous surveying error, Victoria and Tasmania share a land border on Boundary Islet. At in length, the border is the smallest between any two Australian states or territories. the Great Australian Bight portion of the Southern Ocean to the southwest, and the Tasman Sea (a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean) to the southeast. The state encompasses a range of climates and geographical features from its temperate coastal and central regions to the Victorian Alps in the north-east and the semi-arid north-west. Victoria has a population of over 6.6 million, the majority of which is concent ...
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Barry Bishop (mountaineer)
Barry Chapman Bishop (January 13, 1932 – September 24, 1994) was an American mountaineer, scientist, photographer and scholar. With teammates Jim Whittaker, Lute Jerstad, Willi Unsoeld and Tom Hornbein, he was a member of the first American team to summit Mount Everest on May 22, 1963. He worked for the National Geographic Society for most of his life, beginning as a picture editor in 1959 and serving as a photographer, writer, and scientist with the society until his retirement in 1994. He was killed in an automobile accident near Pocatello, Idaho later that year. Early life Barry Chapman Bishop was born on January 13, 1932 to Robert Wilson Bishop, a sociologist who was to become a dean at the University of Cincinnati, and Helen Rebecca Bishop. He was fascinated by climbing from an early age, spending his summers with the YMCA in Colorado and joining the Colorado Mountain Club at age nine or ten. Under the tutelage of the club's members, many of whom were also members of the ...
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National Geographic Society
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational organizations in the world. Founded in 1888, its interests include geography, archaeology, and natural science, the promotion of environmental and historical conservation, and the study of world culture and history. The National Geographic Society's logo is a yellow portrait frame—rectangular in shape—which appears on the margins surrounding the front covers of its magazines and as its television channel logo. Through National Geographic Partners (a joint venture with The Walt Disney Company), the Society operates the magazine, TV channels, a website, worldwide events, and other media operations. Overview The National Geographic Society was founded in 1888 "to increase and diffuse geographic knowledge". It is governed by a board of trustees whose 21 members include distinguished educators, business executives, former governmen ...
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Cretaceous Mammals Of Australia
The Cretaceous (, ) is a geological period that lasted from about 145 to 66 million years ago (mya). It is the third and final period of the Mesozoic Era, as well as the longest. At nearly 80 million years, it is the longest geological period of the entire Phanerozoic, almost surpassing the Ediacaran & Cryogenian in size. The name is derived from the Latin ''creta'', 'chalk', which is abundant in the latter half of the period. It is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation ''Kreide''. The Cretaceous was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. The world was ice free, and forests extended to the poles. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds appeared. During the Early Cretaceous, flowering plants appeared and began to rapidly diversify, becoming t ...
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Australosphenida
The Australosphenida are a proposed infraclass of mammals within subclass Yinotheria. Today, there are only five surviving species, which live in Australia and New Guinea, but fossils have been found in Madagascar and Argentina. The surviving species consist of the platypus and four species of echidna. Contrary to other known crown mammals, they retained postdentary bones as shown by the presence of a postdentary trough. The extant members (monotremes) developed the mammalian middle ear independently. Taxonomy This grouping includes the following taxa: *Monotremata, divided into the families Ornithorhynchidae (platypus), Steropodontidae and Tachyglossidae (echidnas) and the genus ''Kryoryctes'' *†Henosferidae, including the genera ''Ambondro'', ''Asfaltomylos'', and ''Henosferus'' from the Jurassic of Argentina and Madagascar. *†Ausktribosphenidae, including the genera ''Ausktribosphenos'', ''Bishops'' from the Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous of Australia. *†Kollikodont ...
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Extinct Mammals Of Australia
Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism or of a group of kinds (taxon), usually a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99% of all species that ever lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to have died out. It is estimated that there are currently around 8.7 million species of eukaryote globally, and possibly many times more if microorganisms, like bacteria, are included. Notable extinct animal species include non-avian dinosaurs, saber-toothed cats, dodos, mammoths, ...
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