Biosecurity In New Zealand
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Biosecurity In New Zealand
Biosecurity in New Zealand guards against threats to agriculture and biodiversity, with strict border control measures being taken to prevent unwanted organisms from entering the country. __NOTOC__ New Zealand is an island nation that is geographically isolated from any other significant landmass. The species that are present evolved in the absence of organisms from elsewhere and display a high degree of endemism. Notable is the lack of land-based mammals, except for two species of bat. Indigenous species are at risk from population decline or extinction if any invasive species are introduced. The Biosecurity Act 1993, which was a world first for biosecurity control, was passed to "restate and reform the law relating to the exclusion, eradication, and effective management of pests and unwanted organisms". The Ministry for Primary Industries is the government department in charge of overseeing New Zealand's biosecurity. The National Animal Identification and Tracing system for t ...
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Biosecurity New Zealand Logo
Biosecurity refers to measures aimed at preventing the introduction and/or spread of harmful organisms (e.g. viruses, bacteria, etc.) to animals and plants in order to minimize the risk of transmission of infectious disease. In agriculture, these measures are aimed at protecting food crops and livestock from pests, invasive species, and other organisms not conducive to the welfare of the human population. The term includes biological threats to people, including those from pandemic diseases and bioterrorism. The definition has sometimes been broadened to embrace other concepts, and it is used for different purposes in different contexts. The COVID-19 pandemic is a recent example of a threat for which biosecurity measures have been needed in all countries of the world. Background and terminology The term "biosecurity" has been defined differently by various disciplines. The term was first used by the agricultural and environmental communities to describe preventative measur ...
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Mycoplasma Bovis
''Mycoplasma bovis'' is one of 126 species of genus '' Mycoplasma''. It is the smallest living cell and anaerobic organism in nature. It does not contain any cell wall and is therefore resistant to penicillin and other beta lactam antibiotics. ''Mycoplasma bovis'' mainly affects cattle and has little effect on other production animals. It does not affect horses and or pet animals, but other animals can be carriers for ''Mycoplasma bovis''. ''Wyoming Game and Fish is reporting that the North American pronghorn is now affected by the disease with very high mortality. Mycoplasma bovis'' causes a constellation of diseases, including mastitis in dairy cows, arthritis in cows and calves, pneumonia in calves, and various other diseases likely including late-term abortion. Not all infected cows get sick – some shed the disease without becoming ill, allowing for transmission between farms if apparently healthy cows are moved. Signs and symptoms Mastitis Mastitis can cause a declin ...
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Conservation In New Zealand
Conservation in New Zealand has a history associated with both Māori and Europeans. Both groups of people caused a loss of species and both altered their behaviour to a degree after realising their effect on indigenous flora and fauna. Protected areas New Zealand has thirteen national parks, forty four marine reserves and many other protected areas for the conservation of biodiversity. The introduction of many invasive species is threatening the indigenous biodiversity, since the geographical isolation of New Zealand led to the evolution of plants and animals that did not have traits to protect against predation. New Zealand has a high proportion of endemic species, so pest control is generally regarded as a high priority. The New Zealand Department of Conservation administers approximately 30% of New Zealand's land, along with less than 1% of the country's marine environment, for conservation and recreational purposes. It has published lists, under the New Zealand Threat ...
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Waiheke Island
Waiheke Island (; Māori: ) is the second-largest island (after Great Barrier Island) in the Hauraki Gulf of New Zealand. Its ferry terminal in Matiatia Bay at the western end is from the central-city terminal in Auckland. It is the most populated island in the gulf, with permanent residents. Another estimated 3,400 have second homes or holiday homes on the island. It is New Zealand's most densely populated island, and the third most populated after the North and South Islands. It is the most accessible island in the gulf, with regular passenger and car-ferry services, a helicopter operator based on the island, and other air links. In November 2015, Lonely Planet rated Waiheke Island the fifth-best region in the world to visit in 2016. Geography Overview The island is off the coast of the North Island. It is in length from west to east, varies in width from , and has a surface area of . The coastline is , including of beaches. The port of Matiatia at the western end is ...
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Foot And Mouth Disease
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease (HMD) is an infectious and sometimes fatal viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild bovids. The virus causes a high fever lasting two to six days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and near the hoof that may rupture and cause lameness. FMD has very severe implications for animal farming, since it is highly infectious and can be spread by infected animals comparatively easily through contact with contaminated farming equipment, vehicles, clothing, and feed, and by domestic and wild predators. Its containment demands considerable efforts in vaccination, strict monitoring, trade restrictions, quarantines, and the culling of both infected and healthy (uninfected) animals. Susceptible animals include cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, deer, and bison. It has also been known to infect hedgehogs and elephants; llamas and alpacas may develop mild symptoms, but are resistant ...
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Kiwifruit
Kiwifruit (often shortened to kiwi in North American, British and continental European English) or Chinese gooseberry is the edible berry of several species of woody vines in the genus '' Actinidia''. The most common cultivar group of kiwifruit (''Actinidia deliciosa'' 'Hayward') is oval, about the size of a large hen's egg: in length and in diameter. It has a thin, fuzzy, fibrous, tart but edible light brown skin and light green or golden flesh with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds. The fruit has a soft texture with a sweet and unique flavour. Kiwifruit is native to central and eastern China. The first recorded description of the kiwifruit dates to the 12th century during the Song dynasty. In the early 20th century, cultivation of kiwifruit spread from China to New Zealand, where the first commercial plantings occurred. The fruit became popular with British and American servicemen stationed in New Zealand during World War II, and later became commonly exported, first ...
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Pseudomonas Syringae
''Pseudomonas syringae'' is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium with polar flagella. As a plant pathogen, it can infect a wide range of species, and exists as over 50 different pathovars, all of which are available to researchers from international culture collections such as the NCPPB, ICMP, and others. ''Pseudomonas syringae'' is a member of the genus ''Pseudomonas'', and based on 16S rRNA analysis, it has been placed in the ''P. syringae'' group. It is named after the lilac tree (''Syringa vulgaris''), from which it was first isolated. A phylogenomic analysis of 494 complete genomes from the entire ''Pseudomonas'' genus showed that ''P. syringae'' does not form a monophyletic species in the strict sense, but a wider evolutionary group that also included other species as well, such as ''P. avellanae'', ''P. savastanoi'', ''P. amygdali'', and ''P. cerasi''. ''Pseudomonas syringae'' tests negative for arginine dihydrolase and oxidase activity, and forms the polymer le ...
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The New Zealand Herald
''The New Zealand Herald'' is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment, and considered a newspaper of record for New Zealand. It has the largest newspaper circulation of all newspapers in New Zealand, peaking at over 200,000 copies in 2006, although circulation of the daily ''Herald'' had declined to 100,073 copies on average by September 2019. Its main circulation area is the Auckland region. It is also delivered to much of the upper North Island including Northland, Waikato and King Country. History ''The New Zealand Herald'' was founded by William Chisholm Wilson, and first published on 13 November 1863. Wilson had been a partner with John Williamson in the ''New Zealander'', but left to start a rival daily newspaper as he saw a business opportunity with Auckland's rapidly growing population. He had also split with Williamson because Wilson supported the war against the Māori (which the ''Herald'' termed "t ...
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Varroa Mite
''Varroa destructor'', the ''Varroa'' mite is an external parasitic mite that attacks and feeds on the honey bees '' Apis cerana'' and ''Apis mellifera''. The disease caused by the mites is called varroosis. The ''Varroa'' mite can reproduce only in a honey bee colony. It attaches to the body of the bee and weakens the bee by sucking fat bodies. The species is a vector for at least five debilitating bee viruses, including RNA viruses such as the deformed wing virus (DWV). A significant mite infestation leads to the death of a honey bee colony, usually in the late autumn through early spring. The ''Varroa'' mite is the parasite with possibly the most pronounced economic impact on the beekeeping industry. ''Varroa'' is considered to be one of multiple stress factors contributing to the higher levels of bee losses around the world. Physical description File:Varroa destructor protonymph (5048063601).jpg, ''V. destructor'' protonymph File:Varroa destructor deutonymph.jpg, Deutonym ...
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Hamilton, New Zealand
Hamilton ( mi, Kirikiriroa) is an inland city in the North Island of New Zealand. Located on the banks of the Waikato River, it is the seat and most populous city of the Waikato region. With a territorial population of , it is the country's fourth most-populous city. Encompassing a land area of about , Hamilton is part of the wider Hamilton Urban Area, which also encompasses the nearby towns of Ngāruawāhia, Te Awamutu and Cambridge. In 2020, Hamilton was awarded the title of most beautiful large city in New Zealand. The area now covered by the city was originally the site of several Māori villages, including Kirikiriroa, from which the city takes its Māori name. By the time English settlers arrived, most of these villages, which sat beside the Waikato River, were abandoned as a result of the Invasion of Waikato and land confiscation (''Raupatu'') by the Crown. Initially an agricultural service centre, Hamilton now has a diverse economy and is the third fastest growin ...
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Gypsy Moths In New Zealand
The gypsy moth, an invasive species from Eurasia, was discovered in New Zealand. The gypsy moth has potentially disastrous effects on New Zealand agriculture; an intensive eradication programme was planned and undertaken, and the moth did not become established. Gypsy moth eggs are frequently found during border biosecurity checks, commonly on used vehicles, and were first discovered in the 1990s. 2003 Hamilton Gypsy Moth spray In 2003 a live adult moth in viable condition was found in an early warning pheromone trap in the North Island city of Hamilton. Since Hamilton is an entry point for a large amount of international air freight it was presumed that the moth had entered New Zealand in an aircraft. An aerial pesticide spraying programme by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry using the Foray 48B insecticide was carried out over the city from October 2003. Health concerns were raised, but a report to the Ministry of Health concluded that there were no grounds for the ...
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Biocontainment
One use of the concept of biocontainment is related to laboratory biosafety and pertains to microbiology laboratories in which the physical containment of pathogenic organisms or agents (bacteria, viruses, and toxins) is required, usually by isolation in environmentally and biologically secure cabinets or rooms, to prevent accidental infection of workers or release into the surrounding community during scientific research. Another use of the term relates to facilities for the study of agricultural pathogens, where it is used similarly to the term " biosafety", relating to safety practices and procedures used to prevent unintended infection of plants or animals or the release of high-consequence pathogenic agents into the environment (air, soil, or water). Terminology The World Health Organization's 2006 publication, ''Biorisk management: Laboratory biosecurity guidance'', defines laboratory biosafety as "the containment principles, technologies and practices that are implemen ...
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