Baire Category Theorem
The Baire category theorem (BCT) is an important result in general topology and functional analysis. The theorem has two forms, each of which gives sufficient conditions for a topological space to be a Baire space (a topological space such that the intersection of countably many dense open sets is still dense). It is used in the proof of results in many areas of analysis and geometry, including some of the fundamental theorems of functional analysis. Versions of the Baire category theorem were first proved independently in 1897 by Osgood for the real line \R and in 1899 by Baire for Euclidean space \R^n. Statement A Baire space is a topological space X in which every countable intersection of open dense sets is dense in X. See the corresponding article for a list of equivalent characterizations, as some are more useful than others depending on the application. * (BCT1) Every complete pseudometric space is a Baire space. In particular, every completely metrizable topological ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

General Topology
In mathematics, general topology is the branch of topology that deals with the basic settheoretic definitions and constructions used in topology. It is the foundation of most other branches of topology, including differential topology, geometric topology, and algebraic topology. Another name for general topology is pointset topology. The fundamental concepts in pointset topology are ''continuity'', ''compactness'', and ''connectedness'': * Continuous functions, intuitively, take nearby points to nearby points. * Compact sets are those that can be covered by finitely many sets of arbitrarily small size. * Connected sets are sets that cannot be divided into two pieces that are far apart. The terms 'nearby', 'arbitrarily small', and 'far apart' can all be made precise by using the concept of open sets. If we change the definition of 'open set', we change what continuous functions, compact sets, and connected sets are. Each choice of definition for 'open set' is called a ''t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Locally Compact
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space is called locally compact if, roughly speaking, each small portion of the space looks like a small portion of a compact space. More precisely, it is a topological space in which every point has a compact neighborhood. In mathematical analysis locally compact spaces that are Hausdorff are of particular interest; they are abbreviated as LCH spaces. Formal definition Let ''X'' be a topological space. Most commonly ''X'' is called locally compact if every point ''x'' of ''X'' has a compact neighbourhood, i.e., there exists an open set ''U'' and a compact set ''K'', such that x\in U\subseteq K. There are other common definitions: They are all equivalent if ''X'' is a Hausdorff space (or preregular). But they are not equivalent in general: :1. every point of ''X'' has a compact neighbourhood. :2. every point of ''X'' has a closed compact neighbourhood. :2′. every point of ''X'' has a relatively compact neighbourhoo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Cantor Space
In mathematics, a Cantor space, named for Georg Cantor, is a topological abstraction of the classical Cantor set: a topological space is a Cantor space if it is homeomorphic to the Cantor set. In set theory, the topological space 2ω is called "the" Cantor space. Examples The Cantor set itself is a Cantor space. But the canonical example of a Cantor space is the countably infinite topological product of the discrete 2point space . This is usually written as 2^\mathbb or 2ω (where 2 denotes the 2element set with the discrete topology). A point in 2ω is an infinite binary sequence, that is a sequence which assumes only the values 0 or 1. Given such a sequence ''a''0, ''a''1, ''a''2,..., one can map it to the real number :\sum_^\infty \frac. This mapping gives a homeomorphism from 2ω onto the Cantor set, demonstrating that 2ω is indeed a Cantor space. Cantor spaces occur abundantly in real analysis. For example, they exist as subspaces in every perfect, complete metric ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Baire Space (set Theory)
In set theory, the Baire space is the set of all infinite sequences of natural numbers with a certain topology. This space is commonly used in descriptive set theory, to the extent that its elements are often called "reals". It is denoted NN, ωω, by the symbol \mathcal or also ωω, not to be confused with the countable ordinal obtained by ordinal exponentiation. The Baire space is defined to be the Cartesian product of countably infinitely many copies of the set of natural numbers, and is given the product topology (where each copy of the set of natural numbers is given the discrete topology). The Baire space is often represented using the tree of finite sequences of natural numbers. The Baire space can be contrasted with Cantor space, the set of infinite sequences of binary digits. Topology and trees The product topology used to define the Baire space can be described more concretely in terms of trees. The basic open sets of the product topology are cylinder sets, ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Real Line
In elementary mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line (geometry), line that serves as visual representation of the real numbers. Every point of a number line is assumed to correspond to a real number, and every real number to a point. The integers are often shown as speciallymarked points evenly spaced on the line. Although the image only shows the integers from –3 to 3, the line includes all real numbers, continuing forever in each direction, and also numbers that are between the integers. It is often used as an aid in teaching simple addition and subtraction, especially involving negative numbers. In advanced mathematics, the number line can be called as a real line or real number line, formally defined as the set (mathematics), set of all real numbers, viewed as a geometry, geometric space (mathematics), space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space (or affine space), a metric space, a topological ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Separable Space
In mathematics, a topological space is called separable if it contains a countable, dense subset; that is, there exists a sequence \_^ of elements of the space such that every nonempty open subset of the space contains at least one element of the sequence. Like the other axioms of countability, separability is a "limitation on size", not necessarily in terms of cardinality (though, in the presence of the Hausdorff axiom, this does turn out to be the case; see below) but in a more subtle topological sense. In particular, every continuous function on a separable space whose image is a subset of a Hausdorff space is determined by its values on the countable dense subset. Contrast separability with the related notion of second countability, which is in general stronger but equivalent on the class of metrizable spaces. First examples Any topological space that is itself finite or countably infinite is separable, for the whole space is a countable dense subset of itself. An importa ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Of Dependent Choice
In mathematics, the axiom of dependent choice, denoted by \mathsf , is a weak form of the axiom of choice ( \mathsf ) that is still sufficient to develop most of real analysis. It was introduced by Paul Bernays in a 1942 article that explores which settheoretic axioms are needed to develop analysis."The foundation of analysis does not require the full generality of set theory but can be accomplished within a more restricted frame." The axiom of dependent choice is stated on p. 86. Formal statement A homogeneous relation R on X is called a total relation if for every a \in X, there exists some b \in X such that a\,R~b is true. The axiom of dependent choice can be stated as follows: For every nonempty set X and every total relation R on X, there exists a sequence (x_n)_ in X such that :x_n\, R~x_ for all n \in \N. ''x''0 may be taken to be any desired element of ''X''. If the set X above is restricted to be the set of all real numbers, then the resulting axiom is deno ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Zermelo–Fraenkel Set Theory
In set theory, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, named after mathematicians Ernst Zermelo and Abraham Fraenkel, is an axiomatic system that was proposed in the early twentieth century in order to formulate a theory of sets free of paradoxes such as Russell's paradox. Today, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, with the historically controversial axiom of choice (AC) included, is the standard form of axiomatic set theory and as such is the most common foundation of mathematics. Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice included is abbreviated ZFC, where C stands for "choice", and ZF refers to the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice excluded. Informally, Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory is intended to formalize a single primitive notion, that of a hereditary wellfounded set, so that all entities in the universe of discourse are such sets. Thus the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory refer only to pure sets and prevent its models from containing u ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Axiom Of Choice
In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory equivalent to the statement that ''a Cartesian product of a collection of nonempty sets is nonempty''. Informally put, the axiom of choice says that given any collection of sets, each containing at least one element, it is possible to construct a new set by arbitrarily choosing one element from each set, even if the collection is infinite. Formally, it states that for every indexed family (S_i)_ of nonempty sets, there exists an indexed set (x_i)_ such that x_i \in S_i for every i \in I. The axiom of choice was formulated in 1904 by Ernst Zermelo in order to formalize his proof of the wellordering theorem. In many cases, a set arising from choosing elements arbitrarily can be made without invoking the axiom of choice; this is, in particular, the case if the number of sets from which to choose the elements is finite, or if a canonical rule on how to choose the elements is available – some distinguishin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Counterexamples In Topology
''Counterexamples in Topology'' (1970, 2nd ed. 1978) is a book on mathematics by topologists Lynn Steen and J. Arthur Seebach, Jr. In the process of working on problems like the metrization problem, topologists (including Steen and Seebach) have defined a wide variety of topological properties. It is often useful in the study and understanding of abstracts such as topological spaces to determine that one property does not follow from another. One of the easiest ways of doing this is to find a counterexample which exhibits one property but not the other. In ''Counterexamples in Topology'', Steen and Seebach, together with five students in an undergraduate research project at St. Olaf College, Minnesota in the summer of 1967, canvassed the field of topology for such counterexamples and compiled them in an attempt to simplify the literature. For instance, an example of a firstcountable space which is not secondcountable is counterexample #3, the discrete topology on an uncoun ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fort Space
In mathematics, there are a few topological spaces named after M. K. Fort, Jr. Fort space Fort space is defined by taking an infinite set ''X'', with a particular point ''p'' in ''X'', and declaring open the subsets ''A'' of ''X'' such that: * ''A'' does not contain ''p'', or * ''A'' contains all but a finite number of points of ''X''. Note that the subspace X\setminus\ has the discrete topology and is open and dense in ''X''. ''X'' is homeomorphic to the onepoint compactification of an infinite discrete space. Modified Fort space Modified Fort space is similar but has two particular points. So take an infinite set ''X'' with two distinct points ''p'' and ''q'', and declare open the subsets ''A'' of ''X'' such that: * ''A'' contains neither ''p'' nor ''q'', or * ''A'' contains all but a finite number of points of ''X''. The space ''X'' is compact and T1, but not Hausdorff. Fortissimo space Fortissimo space is defined by taking an uncountable set ''X'', with a particular ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Metrizable Space
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a metrizable space is a topological space that is homeomorphic to a metric space. That is, a topological space (X, \mathcal) is said to be metrizable if there is a metric Metric or metrical may refer to: * Metric system, an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement * An adjective indicating relation to measurement in general, or a noun describing a specific type of measurement Mathematics In mathem ... d : X \times X \to [0, \infty) such that the topology induced by d is \mathcal. Metrization theorems are theorems that give sufficient conditions for a topological space to be metrizable. Properties Metrizable spaces inherit all topological properties from metric spaces. For example, they are Hausdorff space, Hausdorff paracompact spaces (and hence Normal space, normal and Tychonoff space, Tychonoff) and Firstcountable space, firstcountable. However, some properties of the metric, such as completeness, cannot be said ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 