Armand Borel
Armand Borel (21 May 1923 – 11 August 2003) was a Swiss mathematician, born in La ChauxdeFonds, and was a permanent professor at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, United States from 1957 to 1993. He worked in algebraic topology, in the theory of Lie groups, and was one of the creators of the contemporary theory of linear algebraic groups. Biography He studied at the ETH Zürich, where he came under the influence of the topologist Heinz Hopf and Liegroup theorist Eduard Stiefel. He was in Paris from 1949: he applied the Leray spectral sequence to the topology of Lie groups and their classifying spaces, under the influence of Jean Leray and Henri Cartan. With Hirzebruch, he significantly developed the theory of characteristic classes in the early 1950s. He collaborated with Jacques Tits in fundamental work on algebraic groups, and with HarishChandra on their arithmetic subgroups. In an algebraic group ''G'' a ''Borel subgroup'' ''H'' is one mini ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

La ChauxdeFonds
La ChauxdeFonds () is a Swiss city in the canton of Neuchâtel. It is located in the Jura mountains at an altitude of 1000 m, a few kilometers south of the French border. After Geneva, Lausanne and Fribourg, it is the fourth largest city located in the Romandie, the Frenchspeaking part of the country, with a population () of . The city was founded in 1656. Its growth and prosperity is mainly bound up with the watchmaking industry. It is the most important centre of the watchmaking industry in the area known as the Watch Valley. Partially destroyed by a fire in 1794, La ChauxdeFonds was rebuilt following a grid street plan, which was and is still original among Swiss cities, the only exception being the easternmost section of the city, which was spared by the fire. This creates an interesting and obvious transition from the old section to the newer section. The roads in the original section are very narrow and winding, which then open up to the grid pattern near the town ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hirzebruch
Friedrich Ernst Peter Hirzebruch ForMemRS (17 October 1927 – 27 May 2012) was a German mathematician, working in the fields of topology, complex manifolds and algebraic geometry, and a leading figure in his generation. He has been described as "the most important mathematician in Germany of the postwar period." Education Hirzebruch was born in Hamm, Westphalia in 1927. His father of the same name was a maths teacher. Hirzebruch studied at the University of Münster from 1945–1950, with one year at ETH Zürich. Career Hirzebruch then held a position at Erlangen, followed by the years 1952–54 at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. After one year at Princeton University 1955–56, he was made a professor at the University of Bonn, where he remained, becoming director of the ''MaxPlanckInstitut für Mathematik'' in 1981. More than 300 people gathered in celebration of his 80th birthday in Bonn in 2007. The Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch theorem (1954) fo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Sheaf (mathematics)
In mathematics, a sheaf is a tool for systematically tracking data (such as sets, abelian groups, rings) attached to the open sets of a topological space and defined locally with regard to them. For example, for each open set, the data could be the ring of continuous functions defined on that open set. Such data is well behaved in that it can be restricted to smaller open sets, and also the data assigned to an open set is equivalent to all collections of compatible data assigned to collections of smaller open sets covering the original open set (intuitively, every piece of data is the sum of its parts). The field of mathematics that studies sheaves is called sheaf theory. Sheaves are understood conceptually as general and abstract objects. Their correct definition is rather technical. They are specifically defined as sheaves of sets or as sheaves of rings, for example, depending on the type of data assigned to the open sets. There are also maps (or morphisms) from one ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Locally Compact Space
In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space is called locally compact if, roughly speaking, each small portion of the space looks like a small portion of a compact space. More precisely, it is a topological space in which every point has a compact neighborhood. In mathematical analysis locally compact spaces that are Hausdorff are of particular interest; they are abbreviated as LCH spaces. Formal definition Let ''X'' be a topological space. Most commonly ''X'' is called locally compact if every point ''x'' of ''X'' has a compact neighbourhood, i.e., there exists an open set ''U'' and a compact set ''K'', such that x\in U\subseteq K. There are other common definitions: They are all equivalent if ''X'' is a Hausdorff space (or preregular). But they are not equivalent in general: :1. every point of ''X'' has a compact neighbourhood. :2. every point of ''X'' has a closed compact neighbourhood. :2′. every point of ''X'' has a relatively compact neighbourho ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Flag Manifold
In mathematics, a generalized flag variety (or simply flag variety) is a homogeneous space whose points are flags in a finitedimensional vector space ''V'' over a field F. When F is the real or complex numbers, a generalized flag variety is a smooth or complex manifold, called a real or complex flag manifold. Flag varieties are naturally projective varieties. Flag varieties can be defined in various degrees of generality. A prototype is the variety of complete flags in a vector space ''V'' over a field F, which is a flag variety for the special linear group over F. Other flag varieties arise by considering partial flags, or by restriction from the special linear group to subgroups such as the symplectic group. For partial flags, one needs to specify the sequence of dimensions of the flags under consideration. For subgroups of the linear group, additional conditions must be imposed on the flags. In the most general sense, a generalized flag variety is defined to mean a projective ho ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Borel Subgroup
In the theory of algebraic groups, a Borel subgroup of an algebraic group ''G'' is a maximal Zariski closed and connected solvable algebraic subgroup. For example, in the general linear group ''GLn'' (''n x n'' invertible matrices), the subgroup of invertible upper triangular matrices is a Borel subgroup. For groups realized over algebraically closed fields, there is a single conjugacy class of Borel subgroups. Borel subgroups are one of the two key ingredients in understanding the structure of simple (more generally, reductive) algebraic groups, in Jacques Tits' theory of groups with a (B,N) pair. Here the group ''B'' is a Borel subgroup and ''N'' is the normalizer of a maximal torus contained in ''B''. The notion was introduced by Armand Borel, who played a leading role in the development of the theory of algebraic groups. Parabolic subgroups Subgroups between a Borel subgroup ''B'' and the ambient group ''G'' are called parabolic subgroups. Parabolic subgroups ''P'' are ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Solvable Group
In mathematics, more specifically in the field of group theory, a solvable group or soluble group is a group that can be constructed from abelian groups using extensions. Equivalently, a solvable group is a group whose derived series terminates in the trivial subgroup. Motivation Historically, the word "solvable" arose from Galois theory and the proof of the general unsolvability of quintic equation. Specifically, a polynomial equation is solvable in radicals if and only if the corresponding Galois group is solvable (note this theorem holds only in characteristic 0). This means associated to a polynomial f \in F /math> there is a tower of field extensionsF = F_0 \subseteq F_1 \subseteq F_2 \subseteq \cdots \subseteq F_m=Ksuch that # F_i = F_ alpha_i/math> where \alpha_i^ \in F_, so \alpha_i is a solution to the equation x^  a where a \in F_ # F_m contains a splitting field for f(x) Example For example, the smallest Galois field extension of \mathbb containing the elemen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Projective Variety
In algebraic geometry, a projective variety over an algebraically closed field ''k'' is a subset of some projective ''n''space \mathbb^n over ''k'' that is the zerolocus of some finite family of homogeneous polynomials of ''n'' + 1 variables with coefficients in ''k'', that generate a prime ideal, the defining ideal of the variety. Equivalently, an algebraic variety is projective if it can be embedded as a Zariski closed subvariety of \mathbb^n. A projective variety is a projective curve if its dimension is one; it is a projective surface if its dimension is two; it is a projective hypersurface if its dimension is one less than the dimension of the containing projective space; in this case it is the set of zeros of a single homogeneous polynomial. If ''X'' is a projective variety defined by a homogeneous prime ideal ''I'', then the quotient ring :k _0, \ldots, x_nI is called the homogeneous coordinate ring of ''X''. Basic invariants of ''X'' such as the degree and the dim ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Homogeneous Space
In mathematics, particularly in the theories of Lie groups, algebraic groups and topological groups, a homogeneous space for a group ''G'' is a nonempty manifold or topological space ''X'' on which ''G'' acts transitively. The elements of ''G'' are called the symmetries of ''X''. A special case of this is when the group ''G'' in question is the automorphism group of the space ''X'' – here "automorphism group" can mean isometry group, diffeomorphism group, or homeomorphism group. In this case, ''X'' is homogeneous if intuitively ''X'' looks locally the same at each point, either in the sense of isometry (rigid geometry), diffeomorphism (differential geometry), or homeomorphism (topology). Some authors insist that the action of ''G'' be faithful (nonidentity elements act nontrivially), although the present article does not. Thus there is a group action of ''G'' on ''X'' which can be thought of as preserving some "geometric structure" on ''X'', and making ''X'' into a singl ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arithmetic Group
In mathematics, an arithmetic group is a group obtained as the integer points of an algebraic group, for example \mathrm_2(\Z). They arise naturally in the study of arithmetic properties of quadratic forms and other classical topics in number theory. They also give rise to very interesting examples of Riemannian manifolds and hence are objects of interest in differential geometry and topology. Finally, these two topics join in the theory of automorphic forms which is fundamental in modern number theory. History One of the origins of the mathematical theory of arithmetic groups is algebraic number theory. The classical reduction theory of quadratic and Hermitian forms by Charles Hermite, Hermann Minkowski and others can be seen as computing fundamental domains for the action of certain arithmetic groups on the relevant symmetric spaces. The topic was related to Minkowski's geometry of numbers and the early development of the study of arithmetic invariant of number fields such as the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

HarishChandra
HarishChandra Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS (11 October 1923 – 16 October 1983) was an Indian American mathematician and physicist who did fundamental work in representation theory, especially harmonic analysis on semisimple Lie groups. Early life HarishChandra was born in Kanpur. He was educated at BNSD Inter College, B.N.S.D. College, Kanpur and at the University of Allahabad. After receiving his master's degree in Physics in 1943, he moved to the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore for further studies under Homi J. Bhabha. In 1945, he moved to University of Cambridge, and worked as a research student under Paul Dirac. While at Cambridge, he attended lectures by Wolfgang Pauli, and during one of them pointed out a mistake in Pauli's work. The two were to become lifelong friends. During this time he became increasingly interested in mathematics. At Cambridge he obtained his PhD in 1947. Honors and awards He was a member of the United States National Academy of Scie ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 