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Antoninianus
(silver 218–222 AD), Trajan Decius (silver 249–251 AD), Gallienus (billon 253–268 AD Asian mint) ''Row 2'': Gallienus (copper 253–268 AD), Aurelian (silvered 270–275 AD), barbarous radiate (copper), barbarous radiate (copper) The antoninianus, or pre-reform radiate, was a coin used during the Roman Empire thought to have been valued at 2 denarii. It was initially silver, but was slowly debased to bronze with a minimal silver content. The coin was introduced by Caracalla in early 215 AD. It was silver, similar to the denarius except that it was slightly larger and featured the emperor wearing a radiate crown, indicating it was a double denomination. Antoniniani depicting women (usually the emperor's wife) featured the bust resting upon a crescent moon. Even at its introduction, the silver content of the antoninianus was only equal to 1.5 denarii. This created inflation: People rapidly hoarded the denarii (Gresham's law), while both b ...
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Sestertius
The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small, silver coin issued only on rare occasions. During the Roman Empire it was a large brass coin. The name ''sestertius'' means "two and one half", referring to its nominal value of two and a half ''asses'' (a bronze Roman coin, singular ''as''), a value that was useful for commerce because it was one quarter of a denarius, a coin worth ten ''asses''. The name is derived from ''semis'', "half" and "tertius", "third", in which "third" refers to the third ''as'': the sestertius was worth two full ''asses'' and half of a third. English-language sources routinely use the original Latin form ''sestertius'', plural ''sestertii''; but older literature frequently uses ''sesterce'', plural ''sesterces'', ''terce'' being the English equivalent of ''tertius''. A modern shorthand for values in sestertii is IIS (Unicode 𐆘), in which the Roman numeral ''II'' i ...
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Aemilianus
Aemilianus (Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus; c. 210 – September 253), also known as Aemilian, was Roman emperor for three months in 253. Commander of the Moesian troops, he obtained an important victory against the invading Goths and was, for this reason, acclaimed emperor by his army. He then moved quickly to Roman Italy, where he defeated Emperor Trebonianus Gallus at the Battle of Interamna Nahars in August 253, only to be killed by his own men a month later when another general, Valerian, proclaimed himself emperor and moved against Aemilian with a larger army. Origins (or Supra), was the wife of Aemilianus. Legend: CORNEL. SVPERA AVG. / VESTA Aemilian was born in the Roman province of Africa. According to the 4th century source ''Epitome de Caesaribus'', he was born at ''Girba'' (modern Djerba, an island off the coast of Tunisia) and was a Moor; a reference in the same source hints that he was born around 207. The 12th-century historian Joannes Zonaras, who calls him a Libya ...
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Caracalla
Caracalla ( ; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), was Roman emperor from 198 to 217. He was a member of the Severan dynasty, the elder son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Co-ruler with his father from 198, he continued to rule with his brother Geta, emperor from 209, after their father's death in 211. His brother was murdered by the Praetorian Guard later that year, supposedly under orders from Caracalla himself, who then reigned afterwards as sole ruler of the Roman Empire. He found administration to be mundane, leaving those responsibilities to his mother, Julia Domna, to attend to. Caracalla's reign featured domestic instability and external invasions by the Germanic peoples. Caracalla's reign became notable for the Antonine Constitution ( la, Constitutio Antoniniana), also known as the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to all free men throughout the Roman Empire. The edict gave all the enfranchi ...
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Quietus
Titus Fulvius Junius Quietus (died 261) was a Roman usurper against Roman Emperor Gallienus. History Quietus was the son of Fulvius Macrianus and a noblewoman, possibly named Junia. According to ''Historia Augusta'', he was a military tribune under Valerian, but this information is challenged by historians. He gained the imperial office with his brother Macrianus Minor, after the capture of Emperor Valerian in the Sassanid campaign of 260. With the lawful heir, Gallienus, being far away in the West, the soldiers elected the two emperors. The support of his father, controller of the imperial treasure, and the influence of Balista, Praetorian prefect of the late Emperor Valerian, proved instrumental in his promotion. Quietus and Macrianus, elected consuls, had to face the Emperor Gallienus, at the time in the West. Quietus and Balista stayed in the eastern provinces, while his brother and father marched their army to Europe to seize control of the Roman Empire. After the defeat ...
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Denarii
The denarius (, dēnāriī ) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238–244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus. It continued to be minted in very small quantities, likely for ceremonial purposes, until and through the tetrarchy (293–313). The word ''dēnārius'' is derived from the Latin ''dēnī'' "containing ten", as its value was originally of 10 assēs.Its value was increased to 16 assēs in the middle of the 2nd century BC. The word for "money" descends from it in Italian (''denaro''), Slovene (''denar''), Portuguese (''dinheiro''), and Spanish (''dinero''). Its name also survives in the dinar currency. Its symbol is represented in Unicode as 𐆖 (U+10196), however it can also be represented as X̶ (capital letter X with combining long stroke overlay). History A predecessor of the ''denarius'' was first struck in 269 or 268 BC, five years before the First Punic War, with an a ...
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Radiate Crown
Coin of the Roman emperor Aurelian, 274-275: Aurelian and Sol Invictus are wearing a radiate crown A radiant or radiate crown, also known as a solar crown, sun crown, Eastern crown, or tyrant's crown, is a crown, wreath, diadem, or other headgear symbolizing the sun or more generally powers associated with the sun. Apart from the Ancient Egyptian form of a disc between two horns, it is shaped with a number of narrowing bands going outwards from the wearer's head, to represent the rays of the sun. These may be represented either as flat, on the same plane as the circlet of the crown, or rising at right angles to it. History In the iconography of ancient Egypt, the solar crown is taken as a disc framed by the horns of a ram or cow. It is worn by deities such as Horus in his solar or hawk-headed form, Hathor, and Isis. It may also be worn by pharaohs. In Ptolemaic Egypt, the solar crown could also be a radiate diadem, modeled after the type worn by Alexander the Great (as identi ...
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Coin
A coin is a small, flat, (usually, depending on the country or value) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins often have images, numerals, or text on them. ''Obverse'' and its opposite, ''reverse'', refer to the two flat faces of coins and medals. In this usage, ''obverse'' means the front face of the object and ''reverse'' means the back face. The obverse of a coin is commonly called ''heads'', because it often depicts the head of a prominent person, and the reverse ''tails''. Coins are usually metal or an alloy, or sometimes made of manmade materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Other coins are used as money in everyday transactions, circulating alongside banknotes. Usually the highest value coin in ...
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Denarius
The denarius (, dēnāriī ) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238–244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus. It continued to be minted in very small quantities, likely for ceremonial purposes, until and through the tetrarchy (293–313). The word ''dēnārius'' is derived from the Latin ''dēnī'' "containing ten", as its value was originally of 10 assēs.Its value was increased to 16 assēs in the middle of the 2nd century BC. The word for "money" descends from it in Italian (''denaro''), Slovene (''denar''), Portuguese (''dinheiro''), and Spanish (''dinero''). Its name also survives in the dinar currency. Its symbol is represented in Unicode as 𐆖 (U+10196), however it can also be represented as X̶ (capital letter X with combining long stroke overlay). History A predecessor of the ''denarius'' was first struck in 269 or 268 BC, five years before the First Punic War, with an a ...
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Aurelian
Aurelian ( la, Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c. October 275) was Roman emperor from 270 to 275. As emperor, he won an unprecedented series of military victories which reunited the Roman Empire after it had practically disintegrated under the pressure of barbarian invasions and internal revolts. His successes were instrumental in ending the Crisis of the Third Century, earning him the title – "Restorer of the World". Born in humble circumstances, he rose through the military ranks to become emperor. During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Aurelian restored the Empire's eastern provinces after his conquest of the Palmyrene Empire in 273. The following year he conquered the Gallic Empire in the west, reuniting the Empire in its entirety. He was also responsible for the construction of the Aurelian Walls in Rome, the abandonment of the province of Dacia, and monetary refor ...
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Decline Of The Antoninianus
Decline may refer to: *Decadence, involves a perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill over time *"Decline" (song), 2017 song by Raye and Mr Eazi *''The Decline'' (EP), an EP by NOFX *The Decline (band), Australian skate punk band from Perth *''The Decline'' (film), a 2020 Canadian thriller drama film See also *Declination (other) *Declinism *Decline and Fall (other) *Decline of the Roman Empire *Decline of Detroit *Ottoman decline thesis *''The Decline of the West'' by Oswald Spengler *Social disintegration, *Societal collapse *Withering away of the state {{disambiguation ...
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Revaluation
Revaluation is a change in a price of a good or product, or especially of a currency, in which case it is specifically an official rise of the value of the currency in relation to a foreign currency in a fixed exchange rate system. In contrast, a devaluation is an official ''reduction'' in the value of the currency. Under floating exchange rates, a rise in a currency's value is an appreciation. Altering the face value of a currency without changing its purchasing power is a redenomination, not a revaluation (this is typically accomplished by issuing a new currency with a different, usually lower, face value and a different, usually higher, exchange rate while leaving the old currency unchanged; then the new replaces the old). In a fixed exchange rate system, the central bank maintains an officially announced exchange rate by standing ready to buy or sell foreign currency at that rate. In general terms, revaluation of a currency is a calculated adjustment to a country's official exch ...
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Devaluation
In macroeconomics and modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a country's currency within a fixed exchange-rate system, in which a monetary authority formally sets a lower exchange rate of the national currency in relation to a foreign reference currency or currency basket. The opposite of devaluation, a change in the exchange rate making the domestic currency more expensive, is called a ''revaluation''. A monetary authority (e.g., a central bank) maintains a fixed value of its currency by being ready to buy or sell foreign currency with the domestic currency at a stated rate; a devaluation is an indication that the monetary authority will buy and sell foreign currency at a lower rate. However, under a floating exchange rate system (in which exchange rates are determined by market forces acting on the foreign exchange market, and not by government or central bank policy actions), a decrease in a currency's value relative to other major currency ...
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Paper Money
A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed authority, payable to the bearer on demand. Banknotes were originally issued by commercial banks, which were legally required to redeem the notes for legal tender (usually gold or silver coin) when presented to the chief cashier of the originating bank. These commercial banknotes only traded at face value in the market served by the issuing bank. Commercial banknotes have primarily been replaced by national banknotes issued by central banks or monetary authorities. National banknotes are often – but not always – legal tender, meaning that courts of law are required to recognize them as satisfactory payment of money debts. Historically, banks sought to ensure that they could always pay customers in coins when they presented banknotes for payment. This practice of "backing" notes with something of substance is the ...
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Marcus Aurelius Marius
Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 269 following the assassination of Postumus. Reign According to later tradition, he was a blacksmith by trade, earning the nickname ''Mamurius Veturius'', a legendary metalworker in the time of Numa. He rose through the ranks of the Roman army to become an officer. He was present with the army that revolted at Moguntiacum (Mainz) after the emperor Postumus refused to allow it to sack the city. They murdered the emperor and in the confusion that followed, the army elected Marius to succeed Postumus. His first decision was in all likelihood to allow his troops to sack the city of Moguntiacum. Seeking to solidify his power base, he then moved to Augusta Treverorum (Trier).Polfer, ''Marius'' His reign lasted no more than two or three months before Postumus’ praetorian prefect Victorinus had Marius killed in the middle of 269, most likely at Augusta Treverorum. According to the ancient written sources, Marius’ reign ...
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Germany
) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German , demonym = German , government_type = Federal parliamentary republic , leader_title1 = President , leader_name1 = Frank-Walter Steinmeier , leader_title2 = Chancellor , leader_name2 = Angela Merkel , leader_title3 = Vice Chancellor , leader_name3 = Olaf Scholz , legislature = , upper_house = Bundesrat , lower_house = Bundestag , sovereignty_type = Formation , established_event1 = , established_date1 = 18 January 1871 , established_event2 = , established_date2 = 9 November 1918 , established_event3 = Nazi Germany , established_date3 = 23 March 1933 , established_event4 = , established_date4 = 23 May 1949 , established_event5 = Reunification , established_date5 = 3 October 1990 , area_km2 = 357,022 , area_footnote = , area_rank = 63rd , area_sq_mi = 137,847 , percent_water = 1.27 (as of 2015) , popula ...
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