Anomalous Cancellation
An anomalous cancellation or accidental cancellation is a particular kind of arithmetic procedural error that gives a numerically correct answer. An attempt is made to reduce a fraction by cancelling individual digits in the numerator and denominator. This is not a legitimate operation, and does not in general give a correct answer, but in some rare cases the result is numerically the same as if a correct procedure had been applied. The trivial cases of cancelling trailing zeros or where all of the digits are equal are ignored. Examples of anomalous cancellations which still produce the correct result include (these and their inverses are all the cases in base 10 with the fraction different from 1 and with two digits): The article by Boas analyzes twodigit cases in bases other than base 10, e.g., 32/13 = 2/1 and its inverse are the only solutions in base 4 with two digits. The anomalous cancellation happens also with more digits, e.g. 165/462 = 15/42 and those with differ ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Arithmetic
Arithmetic () is an elementary part of mathematics that consists of the study of the properties of the traditional operations on numbers— addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extraction of roots. In the 19th century, Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano formalized arithmetic with his Peano axioms, which are highly important to the field of mathematical logic today. History The prehistory of arithmetic is limited to a small number of artifacts, which may indicate the conception of addition and subtraction, the bestknown being the Ishango bone from central Africa, dating from somewhere between 20,000 and 18,000 BC, although its interpretation is disputed. The earliest written records indicate the Egyptians and Babylonians used all the elementary arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, as early as 2000 BC. These artifacts do not always reveal the specific process used for solving problems, but t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Without Loss Of Generality
''Without loss of generality'' (often abbreviated to WOLOG, WLOG or w.l.o.g.; less commonly stated as ''without any loss of generality'' or ''with no loss of generality'') is a frequently used expression in mathematics. The term is used to indicate the assumption that follows is chosen arbitrarily, narrowing the premise to a particular case, but does not affect the validity of the proof in general. The other cases are sufficiently similar to the one presented that proving them follows by essentially the same logic. As a result, once a proof is given for the particular case, it is trivial to adapt it to prove the conclusion in all other cases. In many scenarios, the use of "without loss of generality" is made possible by the presence of symmetry. For example, if some property ''P''(''x'',''y'') of real numbers is known to be symmetric in ''x'' and ''y'', namely that ''P''(''x'',''y'') is equivalent to ''P''(''y'',''x''), then in proving that ''P''(''x'',''y'') holds for every ''x'' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Howler (mathematics)
In mathematics, certain kinds of mistaken proof are often exhibited, and sometimes collected, as illustrations of a concept called mathematical fallacy. There is a distinction between a simple ''mistake'' and a ''mathematical fallacy'' in a proof, in that a mistake in a proof leads to an invalid proof while in the bestknown examples of mathematical fallacies there is some element of concealment or deception in the presentation of the proof. For example, the reason why validity fails may be attributed to a division by zero that is hidden by algebraic notation. There is a certain quality of the mathematical fallacy: as typically presented, it leads not only to an absurd result, but does so in a crafty or clever way. Therefore, these fallacies, for pedagogic reasons, usually take the form of spurious proofs of obvious contradictions. Although the proofs are flawed, the errors, usually by design, are comparatively subtle, or designed to show that certain steps are conditional, and ar ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Converse (logic)
In logic and mathematics, the converse of a categorical or implicational statement is the result of reversing its two constituent statements. For the implication ''P'' → ''Q'', the converse is ''Q'' → ''P''. For the categorical proposition ''All S are P'', the converse is ''All P are S''. Either way, the truth of the converse is generally independent from that of the original statement.Robert Audi, ed. (1999), ''The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy'', 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press: "converse". Implicational converse Let ''S'' be a statement of the form ''P implies Q'' (''P'' → ''Q''). Then the converse of ''S'' is the statement ''Q implies P'' (''Q'' → ''P''). In general, the truth of ''S'' says nothing about the truth of its converse, unless the antecedent ''P'' and the consequent ''Q'' are logically equivalent. For example, consider the true statement "If I am a human, then I am mortal." The converse of that statement is "If I am mortal, then I am ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Greatest Common Divisor
In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two or more integers, which are not all zero, is the largest positive integer that divides each of the integers. For two integers ''x'', ''y'', the greatest common divisor of ''x'' and ''y'' is denoted \gcd (x,y). For example, the GCD of 8 and 12 is 4, that is, \gcd (8, 12) = 4. In the name "greatest common divisor", the adjective "greatest" may be replaced by "highest", and the word "divisor" may be replaced by "factor", so that other names include highest common factor (hcf), etc. Historically, other names for the same concept have included greatest common measure. This notion can be extended to polynomials (see Polynomial greatest common divisor) and other commutative rings (see below). Overview Definition The ''greatest common divisor'' (GCD) of two nonzero integers and is the greatest positive integer such that is a divisor of both and ; that is, there are integers and such that and , and is the largest s ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Involution (mathematics)
In mathematics, an involution, involutory function, or selfinverse function is a function that is its own inverse, : for all in the domain of . Equivalently, applying twice produces the original value. General properties Any involution is a bijection. The identity map is a trivial example of an involution. Examples of nontrivial involutions include negation (x \mapsto x), reciprocation (x \mapsto 1/x), and complex conjugation (z \mapsto \bar z) in arithmetic; reflection, halfturn rotation, and circle inversion in geometry; complementation in set theory; and reciprocal ciphers such as the ROT13 transformation and the Beaufort polyalphabetic cipher. The composition of two involutions ''f'' and ''g'' is an involution if and only if they commute: . Involutions on finite sets The number of involutions, including the identity involution, on a set with elements is given by a recurrence relation found by Heinrich August Rothe in 1800: :a_0 = a_1 = 1 and a_n = a_ + ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

If And Only If
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, "if and only if" (shortened as "iff") is a biconditional logical connective between statements, where either both statements are true or both are false. The connective is biconditional (a statement of material equivalence), and can be likened to the standard material conditional ("only if", equal to "if ... then") combined with its reverse ("if"); hence the name. The result is that the truth of either one of the connected statements requires the truth of the other (i.e. either both statements are true, or both are false), though it is controversial whether the connective thus defined is properly rendered by the English "if and only if"—with its preexisting meaning. For example, ''P if and only if Q'' means that ''P'' is true whenever ''Q'' is true, and the only case in which ''P'' is true is if ''Q'' is also true, whereas in the case of ''P if Q'', there could be other scenarios where ''P'' is true and ''Q'' is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Concatenation (mathematics)
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings endtoend. For example, the concatenation of "snow" and "ball" is "snowball". In certain formalisations of concatenation theory, also called string theory, string concatenation is a primitive notion. Syntax In many programming languages, string concatenation is a binary infix operator. The + (plus) operator is often overloaded to denote concatenation for string arguments: "Hello, " + "World" has the value "Hello, World". In other languages there is a separate operator, particularly to specify implicit type conversion to string, as opposed to more complicated behavior for generic plus. Examples include . in Edinburgh IMP, Perl, and PHP, .. in Lua, and & in Ada, AppleScript, and Visual Basic. Other syntax exists, like , , in PL/I and Oracle Database SQL. In a few languages, notably C, C++, and Python, there is string literal concatenation, meani ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Base 10
The decimal numeral system (also called the baseten positional numeral system and denary or decanary) is the standard system for denoting integer and noninteger numbers. It is the extension to noninteger numbers of the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. The way of denoting numbers in the decimal system is often referred to as ''decimal notation''. A ''decimal numeral'' (also often just ''decimal'' or, less correctly, ''decimal number''), refers generally to the notation of a number in the decimal numeral system. Decimals may sometimes be identified by a decimal separator (usually "." or "," as in or ). ''Decimal'' may also refer specifically to the digits after the decimal separator, such as in " is the approximation of to ''two decimals''". Zerodigits after a decimal separator serve the purpose of signifying the precision of a value. The numbers that may be represented in the decimal system are the decimal fractions. That is, fractions of the form , where is an integer, and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Reduction (mathematics)
In mathematics, reduction refers to the rewriting of an expression into a simpler form. For example, the process of rewriting a fraction into one with the smallest wholenumber denominator possible (while keeping the numerator a whole number) is called "reducing a fraction". Rewriting a radical (or "root") expression with the smallest possible whole number under the radical symbol is called "reducing a radical". Minimizing the number of radicals that appear underneath other radicals in an expression is called denesting radicals. Algebra In linear algebra, ''reduction'' refers to applying simple rules to a series of equations or matrices to change them into a simpler form. In the case of matrices, the process involves manipulating either the rows or the columns of the matrix and so is usually referred to as ''rowreduction'' or ''columnreduction'', respectively. Often the aim of reduction is to transform a matrix into its "rowreduced echelon form" or "rowechelon form"; this is ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Base (exponentiation)
In exponentiation, the base is the number b in an expression of the form bn. Related terms The number n is called the exponent and the expression is known formally as exponentiation of b by n or the exponential of n with base b. It is more commonly expressed as "the nth power of b", "b to the nth power" or "b to the power n". For example, the fourth power of 10 is 10,000 because . The term ''power'' strictly refers to the entire expression, but is sometimes used to refer to the exponent. Radix is the traditional term for ''base'', but usually refers then to one of the common bases: decimal (10), binary (2), hexadecimal (16), or sexagesimal (60). When the concepts of variable and constant came to be distinguished, the process of exponentiation was seen to transcend the algebraic functions. In his 1748 ''Introductio in analysin infinitorum'', Leonhard Euler referred to "base a = 10" in an example. He referred to ''a'' as a "constant number" in an extensive consideration of the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Mathematical Association Of America
The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level. Members include university, college, and high school teachers; graduate and undergraduate students; pure and applied mathematicians; computer scientists; statisticians; and many others in academia, government, business, and industry. The MAA was founded in 1915 and is headquartered at 1529 18th Street, Northwest in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, D.C. The organization publishes mathematics journals and books, including the '' American Mathematical Monthly'' (established in 1894 by Benjamin Finkel), the most widely read mathematics journal in the world according to records on JSTOR. Mission and Vision The mission of the MAA is to advance the understanding of mathematics and its impact on our world. We envision a society that values the power and beauty of mathematics and fully realizes its potential to promote human flourishing ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 