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1740s
File:1740s montage.jpg, 420x420px, From top left, clockwise: The War of Jenkins' Ear, a conflict between the British and Spanish Empires lasting from 1739 to 1748. The War of the Austrian Succession from 1740 to 1748, caused by the death of Emperor Charles VI in 1740. The siege of Trichinopoly, a conflict between the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Maratha Empire over the Carnatic region. George Anson burns Paita, a settlement in Peru in 1742 whilst on a voyage around the world. Nader Shah declares war on the Ottoman Empire in 1743 resulting in the Ottoman–Persian War. Following the end of the First Silesian War in 1742, the Second Silesian War occurs as a continuation of the first war. A Leyden jar is discovered independently by Ewald Georg von Kleist and Pieter van Musschenbroek. The Jacobite rising of 1745, an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father. rect 32 32 650 500 War of Jenkins' Ear rect 700 32 2154 500 War of the Austrian Succession rec ...
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Ottoman–Persian War (1743–1746)
The Ottoman–Persian War of 1743–1746 was fought between the Ottoman Empire and Afsharid Iran. Background Persia attempted to ratify the Treaty of Constantinople (1736), by demanding that the Ja'fari, also known as the Imamiyyah was to be accepted as a fifth legal sect of Islam.Nicolae Jorga: ''Geschichte des Osmannischen Reiches, vol IV'', (trans: Nilüfer Epçeli) Yeditepe Yayınları, 2009, , p. 371 In 1743, Nader Shah declared war on the Ottoman Empire. He demanded the surrender of Baghdad. The Persians had captured Baghdad in 1623 and Mosul in 1624, but the Ottomans had recaptured Mosul in 1625 and Bagdad in 1638. The Treaty of Zuhab in 1639 between the Ottoman Empire and the Safavid Empire had resulted in peace for 85 years. During the fall of the Safavid dynasty, Russia and the Ottoman Empire agreed to divide the northwest and the Caspian region of Persia, but with the advent of Nader Shah, the Russians and the Turks withdrew from the region. Nader Shah waged war agai ...
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War Of The Austrian Succession
The War of the Austrian Succession () was a European conflict that took place between 1740 and 1748. Fought primarily in Central Europe, the Austrian Netherlands, Italy, the Atlantic and Mediterranean, related conflicts included King George's War in North America, the War of Jenkins' Ear, the First Carnatic War and the First Silesian War, First and Second Silesian Wars. Its pretext was the right of Maria Theresa to succeed her father Emperor Charles VI as ruler of the Habsburg monarchy. Kingdom of France, France, Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia and Electorate of Bavaria, Bavaria saw it as an opportunity to challenge Habsburg power, while Maria Theresa was backed by Kingdom of Great Britain, Britain, the Dutch Republic and Electorate of Hanover, Hanover, collectively known as the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, Pragmatic Allies. As the conflict widened, it drew in other participants, among them History of Spain (1700–1810), Spain, Kingdom of Sardinia, Sardinia, Electorate of Saxony, S ...
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment or the Enlightenment; german: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie, "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, La Ilustración, "Enlightenment" was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with global influences and effects. The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the value of human happiness, the pursuit of knowledge obtained by means of reason and the evidence of the senses, and ideals such as liberty, progress, toleration, fraternity, and constitutional government. The Enlightenment was preceded by the Scientific Revolution and the work of Francis Bacon, John Locke, and others. Some date the beginning of the Enlightenment to the publication of René Descartes' ''Discourse on the Method'' in 1637, featuring his famous dictum, ''Cogito, ergo sum'' ("I think, therefore I am"). Others cite the publication of Isaac Newto ...
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War Of Jenkins' Ear
The War of Jenkins' Ear, or , was a conflict lasting from 1739 to 1748 between Britain and the Spanish Empire. The majority of the fighting took place in New Granada and the Caribbean Sea, with major operations largely ended by 1742. It is considered a related conflict of the 1740 to 1748 War of the Austrian Succession. The name was coined in 1858 by British historian Thomas Carlyle, and refers to Robert Jenkins, captain of the British brig "Rebecca", whose ear was allegedly severed by Spanish coast guards while searching his ship for contraband in April 1731. Response to the incident was tepid until opposition politicians in Parliament, backed by the South Sea Company, used it seven years later to incite support for a war against Spain, hoping to improve British trading opportunities in the Caribbean. They also wanted to retain the lucrative '' Asiento de Negros'' giving British slave traders permission to sell slaves in Spanish America, which is why the Spanish call it the ...
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Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) was a colonial empire governed by Spain and its predecessor states between 1492 and 1976. One of the largest empires in history, it was, in conjunction with the Portuguese Empire, the first to usher the European Age of Discovery and achieve a global scale, controlling vast portions of the Americas, territories in Western Europe], Africa, and various islands in Spanish East Indies, Asia and Oceania. It was one of the most powerful empires of the early modern period, becoming the first empire known as "the empire on which the sun never sets", and reached its maximum extent in the 18th century. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which in ...
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War Of Jenkins’ Ear
The War of Jenkins' Ear, or , was a conflict lasting from 1739 to 1748 between Britain and the Spanish Empire. The majority of the fighting took place in New Granada and the Caribbean Sea, with major operations largely ended by 1742. It is considered a related conflict of the 1740 to 1748 War of the Austrian Succession. The name was coined in 1858 by British historian Thomas Carlyle, and refers to Robert Jenkins, captain of the British brig "Rebecca", whose ear was allegedly severed by Spanish coast guards while searching his ship for contraband in April 1731. Response to the incident was tepid until opposition politicians in Parliament, backed by the South Sea Company, used it seven years later to incite support for a war against Spain, hoping to improve British trading opportunities in the Caribbean. They also wanted to retain the lucrative ''Asiento de Negros'' giving British slave traders permission to sell slaves in Spanish America, which is why the Spanish call it the ' ...
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George Anson's Voyage Around The World
While Great Britain was fighting the War of Jenkins' Ear with Spain in 1740, Commodore George Anson led a squadron of eight ships on a mission to disrupt or capture the Pacific Ocean possessions of the Spanish Empire. Returning to Britain in 1744 by way of China and thus completing a circumnavigation of the globe, the voyage was notable for the capture of the Manila Galleon, but also for horrific losses from disease with only 188 men of the original 1,854 surviving. An account of the voyage was published in 1748 which being widely read by the general public was a great commercial success and "is still esteemed as the story of a remarkable voyage extremely well told".John Knox Laughton, biography of "Walter, Richard", Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 5/ref> Background In 1739, the riches that Spain derived from the New World were well known throughout Europe. Huge quantities of silver were shipped from Peru, carried over the isthmus at Panama and then loaded ...
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Jacobite Rising Of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745, also known as the Forty-five Rebellion or simply the '45 ( gd, Bliadhna Theàrlaich, , ), was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the Monarchy of Great Britain, British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, and proved to be the last in Jacobite risings, a series of revolts that began in Jacobite rising of 1689, 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, Jacobite rising of 1715, 1715 and Jacobite rising of 1719, 1719. Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobitism, Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite Army (1745) ...
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