Infinite Monkey Theorem
The infinite monkey theorem states that a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter keyboard for an infinite amount of time will almost surely type any given text, such as the complete works of William Shakespeare. In fact, the monkey would almost surely type every possible finite text an infinite number of times. However, the probability that monkeys filling the entire observable universe would type a single complete work, such as Shakespeare's ''Hamlet'', is so tiny that the chance of it occurring during a period of time hundreds of thousands of orders of magnitude longer than the age of the universe is ''extremely'' low (but technically not zero). The theorem can be generalized to state that any sequence of events which has a nonzero probability of happening will almost certainly eventually occur, given enough time. In this context, "almost surely" is a mathematical term meaning the event happens with probability 1, and the "monkey" is not an actual monkey, but a metaphor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Chimpanzee Seated At Typewriter
The chimpanzee (''Pan troglodytes''), also known as simply the chimp, is a species of great ape native to the forest and savannah of tropical Africa. It has four confirmed subspecies and a fifth proposed subspecies. When its close relative the bonobo was more commonly known as the pygmy chimpanzee, this species was often called the common chimpanzee or the robust chimpanzee. The chimpanzee and the bonobo are the only species in the genus ''Pan''. Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows that ''Pan'' is a sister taxon to the human lineage and is humans' closest living relative. The chimpanzee is covered in coarse black hair, but has a bare face, fingers, toes, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet. It is larger and more robust than the bonobo, weighing for males and for females and standing . The chimpanzee lives in groups that range in size from 15 to 150 members, although individuals travel and forage in much smaller groups during the day. The species lives in a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Double Precision Floatingpoint Format
Doubleprecision floatingpoint format (sometimes called FP64 or float64) is a floatingpoint number format, usually occupying 64 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. Floating point is used to represent fractional values, or when a wider range is needed than is provided by fixed point (of the same bit width), even if at the cost of precision. Double precision may be chosen when the range or precision of single precision would be insufficient. In the IEEE 7542008 standard, the 64bit base2 format is officially referred to as binary64; it was called double in IEEE 7541985. IEEE 754 specifies additional floatingpoint formats, including 32bit base2 ''single precision'' and, more recently, base10 representations. One of the first programming languages to provide single and doubleprecision floatingpoint data types was Fortran. Before the widespread adoption of IEEE 7541985, the representation and ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Shuffling
Shuffling is a procedure used to randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games. Shuffling is often followed by a cut, to help ensure that the shuffler has not manipulated the outcome. __TOC__ Techniques Overhand One of the easiest shuffles to accomplish after a little practice is the overhand shuffle. Johan Jonasson wrote, "The overhand shuffle... is the shuffling technique where you gradually transfer the deck from, say, your right hand to your left hand by sliding off small packets from the top of the deck with your thumb." In detail as normally performed, with the pack initially held in the left hand (say), most of the cards are grasped as a group from the bottom of the pack between the thumb and fingers of the right hand and lifted clear of the small group that remains in the left hand. Small packets are then released from the right hand a packet at a time so that they drop on the top of the pack accumulating in the left hand. The process ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Single Precision Floatingpoint Format
Singleprecision floatingpoint format (sometimes called FP32 or float32) is a computer number format, usually occupying 32 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point. A floatingpoint variable can represent a wider range of numbers than a fixedpoint variable of the same bit width at the cost of precision. A signed 32bit integer variable has a maximum value of 231 − 1 = 2,147,483,647, whereas an IEEE 754 32bit base2 floatingpoint variable has a maximum value of (2 − 2−23) × 2127 ≈ 3.4028235 × 1038. All integers with 7 or fewer decimal digits, and any 2''n'' for a whole number −149 ≤ ''n'' ≤ 127, can be converted exactly into an IEEE 754 singleprecision floatingpoint value. In the IEEE 7542008 standard, the 32bit base2 format is officially referred to as binary32; it was called single in IEEE 7541985. IEEE 754 specifies additional floatingpoint types, such as 64bit base2 ''double prec ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Card Shuffle
Shuffling is a procedure used to randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games. Shuffling is often followed by a cut, to help ensure that the shuffler has not manipulated the outcome. __TOC__ Techniques Overhand One of the easiest shuffles to accomplish after a little practice is the overhand shuffle. Johan Jonasson wrote, "The overhand shuffle... is the shuffling technique where you gradually transfer the deck from, say, your right hand to your left hand by sliding off small packets from the top of the deck with your thumb." In detail as normally performed, with the pack initially held in the left hand (say), most of the cards are grasped as a group from the bottom of the pack between the thumb and fingers of the right hand and lifted clear of the small group that remains in the left hand. Small packets are then released from the right hand a packet at a time so that they drop on the top of the pack accumulating in the left hand. The process ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Probability
Probability is the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an Event (probability theory), event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true. The probability of an event is a number between 0 and 1, where, roughly speaking, 0 indicates impossibility of the event and 1 indicates certainty."Kendall's Advanced Theory of Statistics, Volume 1: Distribution Theory", Alan Stuart and Keith Ord, 6th Ed, (2009), .William Feller, ''An Introduction to Probability Theory and Its Applications'', (Vol 1), 3rd Ed, (1968), Wiley, . The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes ("heads" and "tails") are both equally probable; the probability of "heads" equals the probability of "tails"; and since no other outcomes are possible, the probability of either "heads" or "tails" is 1/2 (which could also be written ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Contract Bridge
Contract bridge, or simply bridge, is a tricktaking card game using a standard 52card deck. In its basic format, it is played by four players in two competing partnerships, with partners sitting opposite each other around a table. Millions of people play bridge worldwide in clubs, tournaments, online and with friends at home, making it one of the world's most popular card games, particularly among seniors. The World Bridge Federation (WBF) is the governing body for international competitive bridge, with numerous other bodies governing it at the regional level. The game consists of a number of , each progressing through four phases. The cards are dealt to the players; then the players ''call'' (or ''bid'') in an auction seeking to take the , specifying how many tricks the partnership receiving the contract (the declaring side) needs to take to receive points for the deal. During the auction, partners use their bids to also exchange information about their hands, including o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quecto
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or submultiple of the unit. All metric prefixes used today are decadic. Each prefix has a unique symbol that is prepended to any unit symbol. The prefix ''kilo'', for example, may be added to ''gram'' to indicate ''multiplication'' by one thousand: one kilogram is equal to one thousand grams. The prefix ''milli'', likewise, may be added to ''metre'' to indicate ''division'' by one thousand; one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the metric system, with six of these dating back to the system's introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have also been used with some nonmetric units. The SI prefixes are metric prefixes that were standardised for use in the International System of Units (SI) by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in resolutions dating from 1960 to 2022. Since 2009, the ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Suit (cards)
In playing cards, a suit is one of the categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. Most often, each card bears one of several pips (symbols) showing to which suit it belongs; the suit may alternatively or additionally be indicated by the color printed on the card. The rank for each card is determined by the number of pips on it, except on face cards. Ranking indicates which cards within a suit are better, higher or more valuable than others, whereas there is no order between the suits unless defined in the rules of a specific card game. In a single deck, there is exactly one card of any given rank in any given suit. A deck may include special cards that belong to no suit, often called jokers. History Modern Western playing cards are generally divided into two or three general suitsystems. The older Latin suits are subdivided into the Italian and Spanish suitsystems. The younger Germanic suits are subdivided into the German and Swiss suitsystems. The French suits a ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Decimal64 Floatingpoint Format
In computing, decimal64 is a decimal floatingpoint computer numbering format that occupies 8 bytes (64 bits) in computer memory. It is intended for applications where it is necessary to emulate decimal rounding exactly, such as financial and tax computations. Decimal64 supports 16 decimal digits of significand and an exponent range of −383 to +384, i.e. to . (Equivalently, to .) In contrast, the corresponding binary format, which is the most commonly used type, has an approximate range of to . Because the significand is not normalized, most values with less than 16 significant digits have multiple possible representations; , etc. Zero has 768 possible representations (1536 if both signed zeros are included). Decimal64 floating point is a relatively new decimal floatingpoint format, formally introduced in the 2008 version of IEEE 754 as well as with ISO/IEC/IEEE 60559:2011. Representation of decimal64 values IEEE 754 allows two alternative representation methods ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Factorial
In mathematics, the factorial of a nonnegative denoted is the product of all positive integers less than or equal The factorial also equals the product of n with the next smaller factorial: \begin n! &= n \times (n1) \times (n2) \times (n3) \times \cdots \times 3 \times 2 \times 1 \\ &= n\times(n1)!\\ \end For example, 5! = 5\times 4! = 5 \times 4 \times 3 \times 2 \times 1 = 120. The value of 0! is 1, according to the convention for an empty product. Factorials have been discovered in several ancient cultures, notably in Indian mathematics in the canonical works of Jain literature, and by Jewish mystics in the Talmudic book '' Sefer Yetzirah''. The factorial operation is encountered in many areas of mathematics, notably in combinatorics, where its most basic use counts the possible distinct sequences – the permutations – of n distinct objects: there In mathematical analysis, factorials are used in power series for the exponential function an ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 