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President Of Mexico
The president of Mexico ( es|link=no|Presidente de México), officially known as the president of the United Mexican States ( es|link=no|Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and head of government of Mexico. Under the Constitution of Mexico, the President is the chief of the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander in chief of the Mexican Armed Forces. The current president is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on 1 December 2018. The office of the president is considered to be revolutionary, in the sense that the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Mexican Revolution is the Constitution's ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, called a ''sexenio''. No one who has held the post, even on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run or serve again. The constitution and the office of the President closely follow the presidential sy ...
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Andrés Manuel López Obrador
Andrés Manuel López Obrador (; born 13 November 1953), also known by his initials AMLO, is a Mexican politician serving as the current president of Mexico since 1 December 2018. Born in Tepetitán, in the municipality of Macuspana, in the south-eastern state of Tabasco, López Obrador graduated from the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 1986 following a hiatus from his studies to participate in politics. He earned a bachelor's degree in political science. He began his political career in 1976 as a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) in Tabasco. His first public position was as director of the Indigenous Institute of Tabasco in 1977, where he promoted the edition of books in indigenous languages and the project of the Chontal ridge. In 1989, he joined the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) and was the party's 1994 candidate for Governor of Tabasco. He was the national leader of the PRD between 1996 and 1999. In 2000, he was elected Head of Go ...
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Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution ( es|Revolución Mexicana) was a major revolution that included a sequence of armed struggles that lasted roughly from 1910 to 1920 and transformed Mexican culture and government. The outbreak of the revolution in 1910 resulted from the increasing unpopularity of the 31-year regime of Porfirio Díaz and the regime's failure to find a controlled solution to the issue of presidential succession. That resulted in a power struggle among competing elites, which provided the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. The wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election and, following the rigged results, revolted under the October 1910 Plan of San Luis Potosí.Friedrich Katz, ''The Secret War in Mexico: Europe, the United States and the Mexican Revolution''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981, p. 35. Armed conflict broke out in earnest in November 1910 starting in northern Mexico, led by Madero, Pascual Orozco, and Panch ...
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Carlos Salinas De Gortari
Carlos Salinas de Gortari CYC DMN (; born 3 April 1948) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who served as President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. He is widely regarded as the most influential and controversial politician in Mexico since the 1990s. Earlier in his career he worked in the Budget Secretariat, eventually becoming Secretary. He was the PRI presidential candidate in 1988, and was declared elected on 6 July 1988 after accusations of electoral fraud. An economist, Salinas de Gortari was the first Mexican president since 1946 who was not a law graduate. His presidency was characterized by the entrenchment of the neoliberal, free trade economic policies initiated by his predecessor Miguel de la Madrid in observance of the Washington Consensus, mass privatizations of state-run companies, Mexico's entry into NAFTA, negotiations with the right-wing opposition party PAN to recognize their victories in gubernatorial el ...
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Law School
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction. Law degrees Argentina In Argentina, lawyers-to-be need to obtain an undergraduate degree in law in order to practice the profession, as opposed to the US system in which a law degree is not obtained until successfully completing a postgraduate program. In spite of that, it is customary to call Argentine lawyers 'doctors,' although the vast majority of them do not hold a Juris Doctor degree. The reason lies in that the career was originally called 'Doctorate in Laws' (''Doctorado en Leyes''), which was an undergraduate degree. There were no graduate studies available in the country at the time of its creation, and they would be instituted only in 1949. After the university reform of 1918 the career was renamed 'Attorney'. It is 5–6 years long, some universities also offering sub ...
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Manuel Ávila Camacho
Manuel Ávila Camacho (; 24 April 1897 – 13 October 1955) was a Mexican politician and military leader who served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946. Despite participating in the Mexican Revolution and achieving a high rank, he came to the presidency of Mexico because of his direct connection to General Lázaro Cárdenas and served him as a right-hand man as his Chief of his General Staff during the Mexican Revolution and afterwards. He was called affectionately by Mexicans "The Gentleman President" ("El Presidente Caballero"). As president, he pursued "national policies of unity, adjustment, and moderation." His administration completed the transition from military to civilian leadership, ended confrontational anticlericalism, reversed the push for socialist education, and restored a working relationship with the US during World War II. Early life Manuel Ávila was born in Teziutlán, a small but economically-important town in Puebla, to middle-class parents, Manuel ...
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Mexican Army
The Mexican Army ( es|Ejército Mexicano) is the combined land and air branch and is the largest part of the Mexican Armed Forces; it is also known as the National Defense Army. It was the first army to adopt (1908) and use (1910) a self-loading rifle, the Mondragón rifle. The Mexican Army has an active duty force of 183,562 with 76,000 men and women of military service age (2015 est.). History Antecedents Pre-Columbian era: native warriors shows the gradual improvements to equipment and ''tlahuiztli'' as a warrior progresses through the ranks from commoner to porter to warrior to captor, and later as a noble progressing in the warrior societies from the noble warrior to "Eagle warrior" to "Jaguar Warrior" to "Otomitl" to "Shorn One" and finally as "Tlacateccatl". In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and highly developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico. The most advanced and powerful kingdoms were those of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and ...
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Senate Of The Republic (Mexico)
The Senate of the Republic, ( es|Senado de la República) constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union ( es|Cámara de Senadores del H. Congreso de la Unión), is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress. It currently consists of 128 members, who serve six-year terms. History Bicameral legislature, including the Senate, was established on 4 October 1824. The Senate was abolished on 7 September 1857 and re-established on 13 November 1874. Composition After a series of reforms during the 1990s, the Senate is made up of 128 senators: *Two for each of the 32 states ''elected'' under the principle of relative majority; *One for each of the 32 states ''assigned'' under the principle of first minority (i.e. awarded to the party who had won the second highest number of votes within the state or Mexico City); *Thirty-two national senators-at-large, divided among the parties in proportion to their share of the national vote. In a senatorial race, ...
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Chamber Of Deputies (Mexico)
The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: ''Cámara de Diputados'') is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral parliament of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate. The structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the constitution. History Bicameral legislature, including the Chamber of Deputies, was established on 4 October 1824. Unicameral Congress was in place from 7 September 1857 to 13 November 1874. After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, which was later put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location. Composition The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative (in Spanish: ''diputado federal'') for every 200,000 citizens. The Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system. Elections are every 3 years. Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are d ...
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Municipalities Of Mexico
Municipalities (''municipios'' in Spanish) are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the ''state'' (Spanish: estado). As of January 2021, there are 2,454 municipalities in Mexico, excluding the 16 boroughs of Mexico City. Since the 2015 Intercensal Survey, two municipalities have been created in Campeche, three in Chiapas, three in Morelos, one in Quintana Roo and one in Baja California. The internal political organization and their responsibilities are outlined in the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution and detailed in the constitutions of the states to which they belong. are distinct from , a form of Mexican locality; some municipalities can be as large as full states, while cities can be measured in basic geostatistical areas or city blocks. Structure All Mexican states are divided into municipalities. Each municipality is autonomous; citizens elect a "municipal president" (''presidente municipal'') who h ...
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Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori ( or ; ; 15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of 31 years, from 1876, 17 February 1877 to 1 December 1880 and from 1 December 1884 to 25 May 1911. The entire period from 1876 to 1911 is often referred to as the Porfiriato. A veteran of the War of the Reform (1858–1860) and the French intervention in Mexico (1862–1867), Díaz rose to the rank of General, leading republican troops against the French-imposed rule of Emperor Maximilian. He subsequently revolted against presidents Benito Juárez and Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada, on the principle of no re-election to the presidency. Díaz succeeded in seizing power, ousting Lerdo in a coup in 1876, with the help of his political supporters, and was elected in 1877. In 1880, he stepped down and his political ally Manuel González was elected president, serving from 1880 to 1884. In 1884 Díaz abandoned the ...
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Porfiriato
The Porfiriato is a term given to the period when General Porfirio Díaz ruled Mexico as president in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coined by Mexican historian Daniel Cosío Villegas. Seizing power in a coup in 1876, Díaz pursued a policy of "order and progress," inviting foreign investment in Mexico and maintaining social and political order, by force if necessary. There were tremendous economic, technological, social, and cultural changes during this period. As Díaz approached his 80th birthday in 1910, having been continuously elected since 1884, he still had not put in place a plan for his succession. The fraudulent 1910 elections are usually seen as the end of the Porfiriato. Violence broke out, Díaz was forced to resign and go into exile, and Mexico experienced a decade of regional civil war, the Mexican Revolution. Porfiriato as a historical period Historians have investigated the era of Díaz's presidency as a cohesive historical period based on political tr ...
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Succession
Succession is the act or process of following in order or sequence. Governance and politics *Order of succession, in politics, the ascension to power by one ruler, official, or monarch after the death, resignation, or removal from office of another, usually in a clearly defined order *Succession of states, in international relations, is the process of recognition and acceptance of a newly created state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state *Succession planning, in organizations, identifying and developing individuals to succeed to senior positions in government, business, organizations, etc. Inheritance *Apostolic succession, the doctrine, held by some Christian denominations, that bishops are the successors of the original Twelve Apostles, inheriting their spiritual, ecclesiastical and sacramental authority, power, and responsibility *Succession of property, or inheritance, in law, is the passage of an individual's ...
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Executive (government)
The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial)—an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a single group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations. Ministers In parliamentary systems, the executive is responsible to the elected legislature, i.e. must maintain the confidence of the legislature (or one part of it, if bicameral). In certain ...
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Presidential System
A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government (president) leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state. In presidential countries, the head of government is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot (usually) in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment. The title "president" has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system, where the head of government comes to power by gaining the confidence of an elected legislature. There are also hybrid systems such as the semi-presidential system ...
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Sexenio (Mexico)
''Sexenio'' is the popular term for the term limit on the President of Mexico. The president is limited to a single six-year term, and no one who holds the office even on a caretaker basis is permitted to run for or hold the office again. It is one of the country's most important political institutions because it is one of the few significant limitations on executive power in Mexico, which is strong at local, state, and national levels. The ''sexenio'' is seen as a reaction to the failed experiment of re-election in Mexico during part of the Porfiriato era (1876–1911). In addition to restricting the presidency, state governors also face this restriction; no one elected as a governor may ever hold the post again, even on an interim basis. The principle of "no reelection" is so entrenched that when the constitution was amended in 2014 to allow federal legislators and municipal mayors to run for immediate reelection, the ban on any sort of presidential reelection remained unchanged. ...
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