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Water Closet
A flush toilet (also known as a flushing toilet, flush lavatory or water closet (WC)) is a toilet that disposes of human excreta (urine and feces) by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their excreta. Flush toilets can be designed for sitting (in which case they are also called "Western" toilets) or for squatting, in the case of squat toilets. The opposite of a flush toilet is a dry toilet, which uses no water for flushing. Flush toilets usually incorporate an "S", "U", "J", or "P" shaped bend (called a trap, such as P trap or S trap) that causes the water in the toilet bowl to collect and act as a seal against sewer gases (trapping the gases). Since flush toilets are typically not designed to handle waste on site, their drain pipes must be connected to waste conveyance and waste treatment systems
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Water Conservation
Water
Water
conservation includes all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand. Population, household size, and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change have increased pressures on natural water resources especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation.[1] Many US cities have already implemented policies aimed at water conservation, with much success.[2] The goals of water conservation efforts include:Ensuring availability of water for future generations where the withdrawal of freshwater from an ecosystem does not exceed its natural replacement rate. Energy conservation
Energy conservation
as water pumping, delivery and wastewater treatment facilities consume a significant amount of energy
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Pull Chain
A pullstring (pull string, pull-string), pullcord (pull cord, pull-cord), or pullchain (pull-chain, pull chain) is a string, cord, or chain wound on a spring-loaded spindle that engages a mechanism when it is pulled. It is most commonly used in toys and motorized equipment. More generally and commonly, a pullstring can be any type of string, cord, rope, or chain, attached to an object in some way used to pull or mechanically manipulate part of it. Types[edit]ToysPerhaps the simplest pullstring toy is the yo-yo (c. 460 BCE). The jumping jack (c. Ancient Egypt) is a more complicated animated puppet paper doll that uses a pullstring to move its arms and legs up and down. Trompos and some spinning tops use a string that is wound around the top and then pulled to make it spin
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Ceramic Glaze
Ceramic
Ceramic
glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing. Glaze can serve to color, decorate or waterproof an item.[1] Glazing renders earthenware vessels suitable for holding liquids, sealing the inherent porosity of unglazed biscuit earthenware. It also gives a tougher surface. Glaze is also used on stoneware and porcelain. In addition to their functionality, glazes can form a variety of surface finishes, including degrees of glossy or matte finish and color. Glazes may also enhance the underlying design or texture either unmodified or inscribed, carved or painted. Most pottery produced in recent centuries has been glazed. Tiles are almost always glazed, and modern architectural terracotta is very often glazed. Glazed brick is also common
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Toilet Seat
A toilet seat is a hinged unit consisting of a round or oval open seat, and usually a lid, which is bolted onto the bowl of a toilet used in a sitting position (as opposed to a squat toilet). The seat can be either for a flush toilet or a dry toilet. A toilet seat consists of the seat itself, which may be contoured forum the user to sit on, and the lid, which covers the toilet when it is not in use – the lid may be absent in some cases, particularly in public restrooms. When the lid is down, it can be used as a seat.Contents1 Usage 2 Variations2.1 Open front toilet seats 2.2 Modern design, electronic integration, and function3 Manufacturers 4 Society and culture4.1 Humor 4.2 US Navy's "$600 Toilet
Toilet
Seat"5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksUsage[edit] The seat is generally lifted when a man stands to urinate, or while cleaning the toilet
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Low-flush Toilet
A low-flush toilet (or low-flow toilet or high-efficiency toilet) is a flush toilet that uses significantly less water than a full-flush toilet. Low-flush toilets use 4.8 litres (1.3 US gal; 1.1 imp gal) or less per flush, as opposed to 6 litres (1.6 US gal; 1.3 imp gal) or more. They came into use in the United States in the 1990s, in response to water conservation concerns.[1] Low-flush toilets include single-flush models and dual-flush toilets, which typically use 1.6 USgpf for the full flush and 1.28 US for a reduced flush.Contents1 Water savings 2 Problems 3 History 4 See also 5 ReferencesWater savings[edit] The US Environmental Protection Agency's WaterSense
WaterSense
program provides certification that toilets meet the goal of using less than 1.6 US gallons per flush. Units that meet or exceed this standard can carry the WaterSense
WaterSense
sticker
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Dual Flush Toilet
A dual-flush toilet is a variation of the flush toilet that uses two buttons or handles to flush different amounts of water. The system was proposed by American industrial designer Victor Papanek in his 1976 book Design for the real world,[1] but the first practical implementation was designed in 1980, by staff at the Australian sanitary-ware company Caroma.[2] Although the first generation dual-flush toilet caught on, a redesign in 1993 cut water usage in half compared with traditional toilets, when used properly.[2] The dual-flush toilet has since become almost universally adopted in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, and Israel, with its use in new buildings often mandated by legislation in those countries.[3] However, due to the more complex mechanism, it is more expensive than many other types of low-flush toilets.[4]Contents1 Mechanism 2 Advantages 3 Disadvantages 4 ReferencesMechanism[edit] Because it is a development of the traditional Australian flushing t
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Greywater
Greywater
Greywater
(also spelled graywater, grey water and gray water) or sullage is all wastewater generated in households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination, i.e. all streams except for the wastewater from toilets. Sources of greywater include, sinks, showers, baths, clothes washing machines or dish washers
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Potable Water
Drinking
Drinking
water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation. The amount of drinking water required varies.[1] It depends on physical activity, age, health issues, and environmental conditions.[1] Americans, on average, drink one litre of water a day and 95% drink less than three litres per day.[2] For those who work in a hot climate, up to 16 liters a day may be required.[1] Water
Water
is essential for life.[1] Typically in developed countries, tap water meets drinking water quality standards, even though only a small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Other typical uses include washing, toilets, and irrigation. Greywater
Greywater
may also be used for toilets or irrigation
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Head (watercraft)
The head (or heads) is a ship's toilet. The name derives from sailing ships in which the toilet area for the regular sailors was placed at the head or bow of the ship. Design[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)In sailing ships, the toilet was placed in the bow somewhat above the water line with vents or slots cut near the floor level allowing normal wave action to wash out the facility. Only the captain had a private toilet near his quarters, at the stern of the ship in the quarter gallery. In many modern boats, the heads look similar to seated flush toilets but use a system of valves and pumps that brings sea water into the toilet and pumps the waste out through the hull in place of the more normal cistern and plumbing trap to a drain
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Seawater
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM). This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions). Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater
Seawater
is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases
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Valves
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. The word is derived from the Latin valva, the moving part of a door, in turn from volvere, to turn, roll. The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid (gas or liquid) flow in one direction, but is pushed open by flow in the opposite direction
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Stopcock
A stopcock is a form of valve used to control the flow of a liquid or gas. The term is not precise. and is applied to many different types of valve. The only consistent attribute is that the valve is designed to completely stop the flow when closed fully.Contents1 Use1.1 Water service 1.2 Laboratory2 GalleryUse[edit] Water service[edit] Stopcocks are used to grossly regulate the flow of tap water in residential and commercial services. One is found at the junction of a water main and the branch leading to an individual service (allowing the service to be isolated from the main trunk), a second inside the structure (allowing its plumbing to be isolated from the branch line leading into it)
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Kiln
A kiln (/kɪln/ or /kɪl/,[1] originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes. Kilns have been used for millennia to turn objects made from clay into pottery, tiles and bricks. Various industries use rotary kilns for pyroprocessing—to calcinate ores, to calcinate limestone to lime for cement, and to transform many other materials.Contents1 Etymology and pronunciation 2 Uses of kilns 3 Ceramic kilns3.1 Modern kilns4 Wood-drying kiln 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksEtymology and pronunciation[edit] The word kiln descends from the Old English
Old English
cylene (/ˈkylene/, which was adapted from the Latin culīna 'kitchen, cooking-stove, burning-place
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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