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Thymelaeaceae
See textThe Thymelaeaceae
Thymelaeaceae
/ˌθɪmɪliːˈeɪsiː/ are a cosmopolitan family of flowering plants composed of 50 genera (listed below) and 898 species.[1] It was established in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu.[2] The Thymelaeaceae
Thymelaeaceae
are in the order Malvales.[3] Except for a sister relationship with Tepuianthaceae, little is known for sure about their relationships with the other families in the order.[4] The family is more diverse in the southern hemisphere than in the northern, with a major concentrations of species in Africa
Africa
and Australia.[5] The genera are overwhelmingly African [6] The Thymelaeaceae
Thymelaeaceae
are mostly trees and shrubs, with a few vines and herbaceous plants. Several genera are of economic importance
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Monotype (biology)
In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group (taxon) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon.[1] A monotypic species is one that does not include subspecies or smaller, infraspecific taxa.[citation needed] In the case of genera, the term "unispecific" or "monospecific" is sometimes preferred. In botanical nomenclature, a monotypic genus is a genus in the special case where a genus and a single species are simultaneously described.[2] In contrast an oligotypic taxon contains more than one but only a very few subordinate taxa. Examples[edit] Just as the term monotypic is used to describe a taxon including only one subdivision, one can also refer to the contained taxon as monotypic within the higher-level taxon, e.g. a genus monotypic within a family
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Ornamental Plant
Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of these, called floriculture, forms a major branch of horticulture.Contents1 Garden
Garden
plants 2 Trees 3 Grasses 4 Cultivation 5 The term 6 References 7 External links Garden
Garden
plants[edit] Commonly, ornamental [garden] plants are grown for the display of aesthetic features including: flowers, leaves, scent, overall foliage texture, fruit, stem and bark, and aesthetic form. In some cases, unusual features may be considered to be of interest, such as the prominent thorns of Rosa sericea
Rosa sericea
and cacti
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Poison
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.[1][2] The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin, and from a venom. Toxins are poisons produced by organisms in nature, and venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting (this is exclusive to animals). The difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method. Industry, agriculture, and other sectors employ poisonous substances for reasons other than their toxicity. Most poisonous industrial compounds have associated material safety data sheets and are classed as hazardous substances. Hazardous substances are subject to extensive regulation on production, procurement and use in overlapping domains of occupational safety and health, public health, drinking water quality standards, air pollution and environmental protection
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Herbaceous Plant
Herbaceous plants (in botanical use frequently simply herbs) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground.[1] Herbaceous plants may be annuals, biennials or perennials,[2] and include both forbs and graminoids. Annual herbaceous plants die completely at the end of the growing season or when they have flowered and fruited, and they then grow again from seed.[3] Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants may have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season (for biennials, until the next growing season, when they flower and die). New growth develops from living tissues remaining on or under the ground, including roots, a caudex (a thickened portion of the stem at ground level) or various types of underground stems, such as bulbs, corms, stolons, rhizomes and tubers
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Vine
A vine ( Latin
Latin
vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the narrowest sense is the grapevine (Vitis), and more generally, any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word also can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance when used in wicker work.[1][2] In parts of the world, the term "vine" applies almost exclusively to the grapevine,[3] while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants.[4]Contents1 Growth forms1.1 Twining vines1.1.1 Direction of rotation2 Horticultural climbing plants2.1 Use as garden plants3 Example vine taxa 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksGrowth forms Vine
Vine
twining around a steel fixed ladderClimbing plant covering a chimneyCertain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time
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Shrub
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbs, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall.[1] Plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions
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Tree
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In looser definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.[1] A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
shaded blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North
North
PoleThe Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the Equator
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Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen
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Southern Hemisphere
Coordinates: 90°0′0″S 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°S 0.00000°E / -90.00000; 0.00000A photo of Earth
Earth
from Apollo 17
Apollo 17
(Blue Marble) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspectiveThe Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
highlighted in yellow ( Antarctica
Antarctica
not depicted)The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
from above the South PoleThe Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
is the half sphere of Earth
Earth
which is south of the Equator
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Order (biology)
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Antoine Laurent De Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
(French pronunciation: ​[ɑ̃twan loʁɑ̃ də ʒysjø]; 12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu.Contents1 Life 2 Selected publications 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 WikimediaLife[edit] Jussieu was born in Lyon. He went to Paris
Paris
to study medicine, graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826. His son Adrien-Henri also became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, Genera plantarum (1789), Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson
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