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Thymelaeaceae
See text The THYMELAEACEAE /ˌθɪmᵻliːˈeɪsiː/ are a cosmopolitan family of flowering plants composed of 50 genera (listed below) and 898 species. It was established in 1789 by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu . The Thymelaeaceae
Thymelaeaceae
are in the order Malvales
Malvales
. Except for a sister relationship with Tepuianthaceae , little is known for sure about their relationships with the other families in the order . The family is more diverse in the southern hemisphere than in the northern , with a major concentrations of species in Africa
Africa
and Australia
Australia
. The genera are overwhelmingly African The Thymelaeaceae
Thymelaeaceae
are mostly trees and shrubs , with a few vines and herbaceous plants . Several genera are of economic importance
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Shrub
A SHRUB or BUSH is a small to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbs , shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height , and are usually under 6 m (20 ft) tall. Plants of many species may grow either into shrubs or trees, depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs, generally less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall, such as lavender , periwinkle and most small garden varieties of roses , are often termed "subshrubs ". CONTENTS * 1 Use in parks * 2 Botanical structure * 3 List of shrubs (bushes) * 4 References USE IN PARKSAn area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery . When clipped as topiary , suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning , in which hard cutting back to a "stool " results in long new stems known as "canes"
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Vine
A VINE ( Latin
Latin
vīnea "grapevine", "vineyard", from vīnum "wine") in the narrowest sense is the grapevine ( Vitis ), and more generally, any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent (that is, climbing) stems, lianas or runners. The word also can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance when used in wicker work. In the United Kingdom, the term "vine" applies almost exclusively to the grapevine. The term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. CONTENTS* 1 Growth forms * 1.1 Use as garden plants * 2 Horticultural climbing plants * 2.1 Examples * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links GROWTH FORMS Climbing plant covering a chimney Retaining wall covered by vines Certain plants always grow as vines, while a few grow as vines only part of the time
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Tree
In botany , a TREE is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk , supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth , plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. In looser senses, the taller palms , the tree ferns , bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. The tallest known tree, a coast redwood named Hyperion , stands 115.6 m (379 ft) high. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world. A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA /ˈdʒɛnərə/ ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis
Felis
silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair
Advance Australia Fair
" CAPITAL Canberra
Canberra
35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E
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Herbaceous Plant
HERBACEOUS PLANTS (in botanical use frequently simply HERBS) are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground. Herbaceous plants may be annuals , biennials or perennials . Annual herbaceous plants die completely at the end of the growing season or when they have flowered and fruited, and they then grow again from seed. Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants may have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season (for biennials, until the next growing season, when they flower and die). New growth develops from living tissues remaining on or under the ground, including roots , a caudex (a thickened portion of the stem at ground level) or various types of underground stems , such as bulbs , corms , stolons , rhizomes and tubers
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Stamen
The STAMEN (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen -producing reproductive organ of a flower . Collectively the stamens form the ANDROECIUM. CONTENTS * 1 Morphology and terminology * 2 Etymology * 3 Variation in morphology * 4 Pollen
Pollen
production * 5 Sexual reproduction in plants * 6 Descriptive terms * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links MORPHOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGYA stamen typically consists of a stalk called the FILAMENT and an ANTHER which contains microsporangia . Most commonly anthers are two-lobed and are attached to the filament either at the base or in the middle area of the anther. The sterile tissue between the lobes is called the CONNECTIVE. A pollen grain develops from a microspore in the microsporangium and contains the male gametophyte . The stamens in a flower are collectively called the ANDROECIUM. The androecium can consist of as few as one-half stamen (i.e
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Ornamental Plant
ORNAMENTAL PLANTS are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants , for cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of these, called floriculture , forms a major branch of horticulture . CONTENTS * 1 Garden
Garden
plants * 2 Trees * 3 Cultivation * 4 The term * 5 References * 6 External links GARDEN PLANTSCommonly, ornamental plants are grown for the display of aesthetic features including: flowers , leaves , scent, overall foliage texture, fruit, stem and bark, and aesthetic form. In some cases, unusual features may be considered to be of interest, such as the prominent thorns of Rosa sericea and cacti . In all cases, their purpose is for the enjoyment of gardeners, visitors, and the public institutions. TREES See also: Category:Ornamental trees . See also: Roadside park Similarly certain trees may be called ORNAMENTAL TREES
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Poison
In biology , POISONS are substances that cause disturbances in organisms , usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity. The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin , and from a venom . Poisons are toxins produced by organisms in nature, and venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting (this is exclusive to animals). The difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method. Industry, agriculture, and other sectors use poisons for reasons other than their toxicity . Pesticides are one group of substances whose toxicity to various insects and other animals deemed to be pests (e.g., rats and cockroaches ) is their prime purpose. In 2013, 3.3 million cases of unintentional poisonings occurred. This resulted in 98,000 deaths worldwide, down from 120,000 deaths in 1990
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John Hutchinson (botanist)
JOHN HUTCHINSON, OBE , FRS (7 April 1884 Blindburn, Northumberland – 2 September 1972 London
London
) was a renowned English botanist , taxonomist and author. CONTENTS * 1 Life and career * 2 Awards * 3 Personal life * 4 First Southern Africa trip August 1928 - April 1929 * 5 Second African trip June 1930 - September 1930 * 6 Publications * 7 See also * 8 References LIFE AND CAREERBorn in Blindburn, Wark on Tyne , Northumberland
Northumberland
, England, he received his horticultural training in Northumberland
Northumberland
and Durham and was appointed a student gardener at Kew in 1904. His taxonomic and drawing skills were soon noticed and resulted in his being appointed to the Herbarium in 1905
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Monotype (biology)
In biology , a MONOTYPIC TAXON is a taxonomic group (taxon ) that contains only one immediately subordinate taxon. Although the phrase appears to indicate that a taxon has a single type specimen (with no syntypes , lectotypes , or other types) and no heterotypic/junior synonyms , that is not the usage. A monotypic species is one that does not include subspecies or smaller, infraspecific taxa. In the case of genera, the term "unispecific" is sometimes preferred. In botanical nomenclature , a MONOTYPIC GENUS is a genus in the special case where a genus and a single species are simultaneously described. In contrast an OLIGOTYPIC TAXON contains more than one but only a very few subordinate taxa. EXAMPLESJust as the term monotypic is used to describe a large taxon including only one subdivision, one can also refer to the contained taxon as monotypic within the larger taxon, e.g. a genus monotypic within a family
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae
Plantae
Subkingdom: Embryophyta
Embryophyta
(unranked): Spermatophyta
Spermatophyta
(unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. in other words, a fruiting plant. The term comes from the Greek words angeion ("case" or "casing") and sperma ("seed")
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