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Three-phase
In electrical engineering , THREE-PHASE electric power systems have at least three conductors carrying alternating current voltages that are offset in time by one-third of the period. A three-phase system may be arranged in delta (∆) or star (Y) (also denoted as wye in some areas). A wye system allows the use of two different voltages from all three phases, such as a 230/400 V system which provides 230 V between the neutral (centre hub) and any one of the phases, and 400 V across any two phases. A delta system arrangement only provides one voltage magnitude, however it has a greater redundancy as it may continue to operate normally with one of the three supply windings offline, albeit at 57.7% of total capacity. Harmonic
Harmonic
current in the neutral may become very large if non-linear loads are connected
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Blondel's Theorem
BLONDEL\'S THEOREM, named after its discoverer, French electrical engineer André Blondel , is the result of his attempt to simplify both the measurement of electrical energy and the validation of such measurements. The result is a simple rule that specifies the minimum number of watt-hour meters required to measure the consumption of energy in any system of electrical conductors . The theorem states that the power provided to a system of N conductors is equal to the algebraic sum of the power measured by N watt-meters. The N watt-meters are separately connected such that each one measures the current level in one of the N conductors and the potential level between that conductor and a common point. In a further simplification, if that common point is located on one of the conductors, that conductor's meter can be removed and only N-1 meters are required
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Harmonic
A HARMONIC is any member of the harmonic series , a divergent infinite series. Its name derives from the concept of overtones , or harmonics in musical instruments : the wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string or a column of air (as with a tuba ) are derived from the string's (or air column's) fundamental wavelength. Every term of the series (i.e., the higher harmonics) after the first is the "harmonic mean " of the neighboring terms. The phrase "harmonic mean" likewise derives from music. The term is employed in various disciplines, including music, physics, acoustics , electronic power transmission, radio technology, and other fields. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves. A harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency
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Charles Proteus Steinmetz
CHARLES PROTEUS STEINMETZ (April 9, 1865 – October 26, 1923; birth-name: Karl August Rudolph Steinmetz) was a German-born American mathematician and electrical engineer and professor at Union College . He fostered the development of alternating current that made possible the expansion of the electric power industry in the United States, formulating mathematical theories for engineers. He made ground-breaking discoveries in the understanding of hysteresis that enabled engineers to design better electromagnetic apparatus equipment including especially electric motors for use in industry
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Galileo Ferraris
GALILEO FERRARIS (31 October 1847 – 7 February 1897) was an Italian physicist and electrical engineer , one of the pioneers of AC power system and the inventor of induction motor . Many newspapers touted that his work on the induction motor and power transmission systems were some of the greatest inventions of all ages. He published an extensive and complete monograph on the experimental results obtained with open-circuit transformers of the type designed by the power engineers Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Memorials * 3 Publications * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn at Livorno Vercellese (Kingdom of Sardinia ), Ferraris gained a master's degree in engineering and became an assistant of technical physics near the Regal Italian Industrial Museum. Ferraris independently researched the rotary magnetic field in 1885. Ferraris experimented with different types of asynchronous electric motors
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Torque
TORQUE, MOMENT, or MOMENT OF FORCE is rotational force . Just as a linear force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. In three dimensions, the torque is a pseudovector ; for point particles, it is given by the cross product of the position vector (distance vector ) and the force vector. The symbol for torque is typically {displaystyle tau } , the lowercase Greek letter tau . When it is called moment of force, it is commonly denoted by M. The magnitude of torque of a rigid body depends on three quantities: the force applied, the lever arm vector connecting the origin to the point of force application, and the angle between the force and lever arm vectors
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Direct Current
DIRECT CURRENT (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge . A battery is a good example of a DC power supply. Direct current
Direct current
may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors , insulators , or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams . The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for this type of current was GALVANIC CURRENT. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage . Direct current
Direct current
may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a rectifier , which contains electronic elements (usually) or electromechanical elements (historically) that allow current to flow only in one direction
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Kirchhoff's Circuit Laws
KIRCHHOFF\'S CIRCUIT LAWS are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits . They were first described in 1845 by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff . This generalized the work of Georg Ohm
Georg Ohm
and preceded the work of Maxwell . Widely used in electrical engineering , they are also called KIRCHHOFF\'S RULES or simply KIRCHHOFF\'S LAWS. Both of Kirchhoff's laws can be understood as corollaries of the Maxwell equations
Maxwell equations
in the low-frequency limit. They are accurate for DC circuits, and for AC circuits at frequencies where the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are very large compared to the circuits
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Dimensionless Quantity
In dimensional analysis , a DIMENSIONLESS QUANTITY is a quantity to which no physical dimension is applicable. It is also known as a BARE NUMBER or a QUANTITY OF DIMENSION ONE. Dimensionless quantities are widely used in many fields, such as mathematics , physics , engineering , and economics . By contrast, examples of quantities with dimensions are length , time , and speed , which are measured in dimensional units, such as metre , second and metre per second
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Electrical Engineering
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity , electronics , and electromagnetism . This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph , the telephone , and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broadcasting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor , and later the integrated circuit , brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object. Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering
has now subdivided into a wide range of subfields including electronics , digital computers , computer engineering , power engineering , telecommunications , control systems , radio-frequency engineering , signal processing , instrumentation , and microelectronics
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Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky
MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH DOLIVO-DOBROVOLSKY (Russian : Михаи́л О́сипович Доли́во-Доброво́льский; German : Michail von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky or Michail Ossipowitsch Doliwo-Dobrowolski; Polish : Michał Doliwo-Dobrowolski; January 2 1862 in Gatchina near Saint Petersburg – November 15 1919 in Heidelberg , Germany ), was a Polish -Russian engineer , electrician , and inventor . Born in a mixed family between a Polish noble family originating from Mazowsze , and a Russian noble family. Emigrated to Germany due to political persecution of Poles after the assassination of Alexander II of Russia (1881). He studied at the Darmstadt University of Technology (TH Darmstadt) in Germany . From 1887 he worked for AEG
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Electric Motor
An ELECTRIC MOTOR is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy . The reverse of this is the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator , and generators and motors have much in common. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors in the transportation industry, electric motors can also be used in reverse as generators to convert mechanical energy into electric power. Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators
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Nikola Tesla
NIKOLA TESLA (Serbian Cyrillic : Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer , mechanical engineer , physicist , and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Born and raised in the Austrian Empire, Tesla
Tesla
received an advanced education in engineering and physics in the 1870s and gained practical experience in the early 1880s working in telephony and at Continental Edison in the new electric power industry . He emigrated to the United States in 1884, where he would become a naturalized citizen. He worked for a short time at the Edison Machine Works
Edison Machine Works
in New York City
New York City
before he struck out on his own
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Utility Frequency
The UTILITY FREQUENCY, (POWER) LINE FREQUENCY ( American English
American English
) or MAINS FREQUENCY ( British English
British English
) is the nominal frequency of the oscillations of alternating current (AC) in an electric power grid transmitted from a power station to the end-user . In large parts of the world this is 50 Hz , although in the Americas
Americas
and parts of Asia it is typically 60 Hz. Current usage by country or region is given in the list of mains power around the world . During the development of commercial electric power systems in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many different frequencies (and voltages) had been used. Large investment in equipment at one frequency made standardization a slow process. However, as of the turn of the 21st century, places that now use the 50 Hz frequency tend to use 220–240 V , and those that now use 60 Hz tend to use 100–127 V
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