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The Hermitage Museum
THE STATE HERMITAGE MUSEUM (Russian: Госуда́рственный Эрмита́ж, tr. Gosudárstvennyj Ermitáž; IPA: ) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
. The largest , it was founded in 1764 when Empress Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
acquired an impressive collection of paintings from the Berlin
Berlin
merchant Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky . The museum celebrates the anniversary of its founding each year on 7 December, Saint Catherine\'s Day . It has been open to the public since 1852. Its collections, of which only a small part is on permanent display, comprise over three million items (the numismatic collection accounts for about one third of them), including the largest collection of paintings in the world
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Marble
MARBLE is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals , most commonly calcite or dolomite . Marble
Marble
may be foliated . Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone ; however, stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble
Marble
is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Physical origins * 3 Types * 4 Uses * 4.1 Sculpture * 4.2 Construction
Construction
marble * 5 Production * 5.1 Occupational safety * 5.1.1 United States
United States
* 6 Microbial degradation * 7 Cultural associations * 8 Artificial marble * 9 Gallery * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links ETYMOLOGY Carlo Franzoni's sculptural marble chariot clock depicting Clio , the Greek muse of history
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Stucco
STUCCO or RENDER is a material made of aggregates , a binder , and water. Stucco
Stucco
is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco
Stucco
may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as metal , concrete , cinder block , or clay brick and adobe . In English, stucco usually means a coating for the outside of a building, and plaster one for interiors; as described below, the material itself is often little different. But other European languages, importantly including Italian, do not have the same distinction; stucco means plaster in Italian and serves for both. This has led to English often using "stucco" for interior decorative plasterwork in relief , especially in art history and older sources
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Granite
GRANITE ( /ˈɡrænᵻt/ ) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar , although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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Serdobol
SORTAVALA (till 1918 SERDOBOL; Russian : Со́ртавала; Finnish and Karelian : Sortavala; Swedish : Sordavala) is a town in the Republic of Karelia
Republic of Karelia
, Russia
Russia
, located at the northern tip of Lake Ladoga . Population: 19,235 (2010 Census ); 21,131 (2002 Census ); 22,579 (1989 Census ). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Administrative and municipal status * 3 Transportation * 4 Industry * 5 Twin towns and sister cities * 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 Sources HISTORYThe district of Sortavala was first recorded in Swedish documents dating to 1468. Russian documents first mention it as SERDOVOL or SERDOBOL in 1500. It was ceded to Sweden
Sweden
after the Ingrian War
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Jasper
JASPER, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases, is an opaque , impure variety of silica , usually red , yellow , brown or green in color; and rarely blue . The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions . The mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone . It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals , and snuff boxes . The specific gravity of jasper is typically 2.5 to 2.9. Along with heliotrope (bloodstone) , jasper (green with red spots) is one of the traditional birthstones for March. Jaspilite is a banded iron formation rock that often has distinctive bands of jasper
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Faux Painting
FAUX PAINTING or FAUX FINISHING are terms used to describe decorative paint finishes that replicate the appearance of materials such as marble, wood or stone. The term comes from the French word faux, meaning false, as these techniques started as a form of replicating materials such as marble and wood with paint, but has subsequently come to encompass many other decorative finishes for walls and furniture including simulating recognisable textures and surfaces. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 20th century revival * 3 Faux finishes * 4 References HISTORYFaux finishing has been used for millennia, from cave painting to the tombs of ancient Egypt , but what we generally think of as faux finishing in the decorative arts began with plaster and stucco finishes in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
over 5,000 years ago
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Greek Revival
The GREEK REVIVAL was an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States. A product of Hellenism , it may be looked upon as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture
. The term was first used by Charles Robert Cockerell
Charles Robert Cockerell
in a lecture he gave as Professor of Architecture to the Royal Academy of Arts , London in 1842. With a newfound access to Greece
Greece
, or initially the books produced by the few who had actually been able to visit the sites, archaeologist-architects of the period studied the Doric and Ionic orders
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Babylon
BABYLON (𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 Akkadian
Akkadian
: Bābili or Babilim; Aramaic
Aramaic
: בבל, Babel; Arabic : بَابِل‎‎, Bābil; Hebrew : בָּבֶל‎‎, Bavel) was a major city of ancient Mesopotamia . The city was built upon the Euphrates
Euphrates
river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Babylon
Babylon
was originally a small Akkadian
Akkadian
city dating from the period of the Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire c. 2300 BC. The town became an independent city-state with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in the nineteenth century BC
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Dur-Sharrukin
DUR-SHARRUKIN ("Fortress of Sargon"; Arabic : دور شروكين‎‎), present day KHORSABAD, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria
Assyria
. Khorsabad is a village in northern Iraq
Iraq
, 15 km northeast of Mosul
Mosul
. The great city was entirely built in the decade preceding 706 BC. After the unexpected death of Sargon in battle, the capital was shifted 20 km south to Nineveh
Nineveh
. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Destruction by ISIL * 2 Features * 3 Archaeology * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Lamassu found during Botta's excavation, now in the Louvre Museum. Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the Neo-Assyrian period (place names in French) Sargon II ruled from 722 to 705 BC
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Nimrud
NIMRUD (/nɪmˈruːd/ ; Arabic : النمرود‎‎) is the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic name for the ancient Assyrian city of KALHU (the Biblical Calah ), located 30 kilometres (20 mi) south of the city of Mosul
Mosul
, and 5 kilometres (3 mi) south of the village of Selamiyah (Arabic : السلامية‎‎), in the Nineveh plains in northern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
. It was a major Assyrian city between approximately 1350 BC and 610 BC. The city is located in a strategic position 10 kilometres (6 mi) north of the point that the river Tigris
Tigris
meets its tributary the Great Zab . The city covered an area of 360 hectares (890 acres). The ruins of the city were found within one kilometre (1,100 yd) of the modern-day Assyrian village of Noomanea in Nineveh Province , Iraq
Iraq

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Leo Von Klenze
LEO VON KLENZE (FRANZ KARL LEOPOLD VON KLENZE; 29 February 1784, Buchladen (Bockelah / Bocla) near Schladen – 26 January 1864, Munich ) was a German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer. Court architect of Bavarian King Ludwig I , Leo von Klenze
Leo von Klenze
was one of the most prominent representatives of Greek revival
Greek revival
style. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Architectural works * 3 See also * 4 References BIOGRAPHYVon Klenze studied architecture and public building finance under Friedrich Gilly in Berlin, and worked as an apprentice to Charles Percier and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine in Paris. Between 1808 and 1813 he was a court architect of Jérôme Bonaparte
Jérôme Bonaparte
, King of Westphalia
Westphalia

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Libraries
A LIBRARY is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books , periodicals , newspapers , manuscripts , films , maps , prints , documents , microform , CDs , cassettes , videotapes , DVDs , Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Discs , e-books , audiobooks , databases , and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque
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Basilica
The Latin
Latin
word BASILICA (derived from the Greek βασιλικὴ στοά (basilikè stoá), lit. "royal stoa ", serving as the tribunal chamber of a king) has three distinct applications in modern English. The word was originally used to describe an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. To a large extent these were the town halls of ancient Roman life. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the main forum . These buildings, an example of which is the Basilica Ulpia , were rectangular, and often had a central nave and aisles , usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at each of the two ends, adorned with a statue perhaps of the emperor, while the entrances were from the long sides
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Tauride Venus
The VENUS TAURIDE or VENUS OF TAURIS is a 1.67 m high sculpture of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
. It is named after the Tauride (Tavrichesky) Palace in St Petersburg , where it was kept from the end of the eighteenth century until the mid-nineteenth. It is now in the Hermitage Museum . It shows the goddess rising from her bath (with a column on the right on the piece, to her left-hand side, with her towel or clothing draped over it). It lost both arms in antiquity and her nose has been restored, but is otherwise complete (including an elaborate ancient hairstyle popular amongst classical upper-class women, with locks falling down onto her shoulders, and an original ankle bracelet on her left ankle). It was thought to be a 2nd-century AD Roman copy from a Greek original, but recent research suggests it is in fact a Greek original dating from the 3rd or 2nd century BC
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Cameo (carving)
CAMEO (/ˈkæmioʊ/ ) is a method of carving an object such as an engraved gem , item of jewellery or vessel. It nearly always features a raised (positive) relief image; contrast with intaglio , which has a negative image. Originally, and still in discussing historical work, cameo only referred to works where the relief image was of a contrasting colour to the background; this was achieved by carefully carving a piece of material with a flat plane where two contrasting colours met, removing all the first colour except for the image to leave a contrasting background. Today the term may be used very loosely for objects with no colour contrast, and other, metaphorical, terms have developed, such as cameo appearance . This derives from another generalized meaning that has developed, the cameo as an image of a head in an oval frame in any medium, such as a photograph
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