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The Hermitage Museum
The State Hermitage Museum
Museum
(Russian: Госуда́рственный Эрмита́ж, tr. Gosudárstvennyj Ermitáž, IPA: [ɡəsʊˈdarstvʲɪnɨj ɪrmʲɪˈtaʂ]) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The second-largest in the world,[2][3] it was founded in 1764 when Empress Catherine the Great acquired an impressive collection of paintings from the Berlin merchant Johann Ernst Gotzkowsky. The museum celebrates the anniversary of its founding each year on 7 December, Saint Catherine's Day.[4] It has been open to the public since 1852. Its collections, of which only a small part is on permanent display, comprise over three million items (the numismatic collection accounts for about one-third of them),[5] including the largest collection of paintings in the world
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Hermitage (other)
Hermitage
Hermitage
or The Hermitage
Hermitage
may refer to: Hermitage
Hermitage
(religious retreat), a place of religious seclusion The Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
(est
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Libraries
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.[1] It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both.[2] A library's collection can include books, periodicals, newspapers, manuscripts, films, maps, prints, documents, microform, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Discs, e-books, audiobooks, databases, and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC
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Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
Dur-Sharrukin
("Fortress of Sargon"; Arabic: دور شروكين‎), present day Khorsabad, was the Assyrian capital in the time of Sargon II of Assyria. Khorsabad is a village in northern Iraq, 15 km northeast of Mosul. The great city was entirely built in the decade preceding 706 BC. After the unexpected death of Sargon in battle, the capital was shifted 20 km south to Nineveh.Contents1 History1.1 Destruction by ISIL2 Features 3 Archaeology 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Lamassu
Lamassu
found during Botta's excavation, now in the Louvre
Louvre
Museum. Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the Neo-Assyrian period (place names in French)Sargon II ruled from 722 to 705 BC. The demands for timber and other materials and craftsmen, who came from as far as coastal Phoenicia, are documented in contemporary Assyrian letters
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Nimrud
Nimrud
Nimrud
(/nɪmˈruːd/; Arabic: النمرود‎) is the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic name for the ancient Assyrian city of Kalhu
Kalhu
(the Biblical Calah), located 30 kilometres (20 mi) south of the city of Mosul, and 5 kilometres (3 mi) south of the village of Selamiyah (Arabic: السلامية‎), in the Nineveh plains
Nineveh plains
in northern Mesopotamia. It was a major Assyrian city between approximately 1350 BC and 610 BC. The city is located in a strategic position 10 kilometres (6 mi) north of the point that the river Tigris
Tigris
meets its tributary the Great Zab.[1] The city covered an area of 360 hectares (890 acres).[2] The ruins of the city were found within one kilometre (1,100 yd) of the modern-day Assyrian village of Noomanea in Nineveh
Nineveh
Province, Iraq
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Leo Von Klenze
Leo von Klenze
Leo von Klenze
(Franz Karl Leopold von Klenze; 29 February 1784, Buchladen (Bockelah / Bocla) near Schladen
Schladen
– 26 January 1864, Munich) was a German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer. Court architect of Bavarian King Ludwig I, Leo von Klenze
Leo von Klenze
was one of the most prominent representatives of Greek revival
Greek revival
style.Contents1 Biography 2 Architectural works 3 See also 4 ReferencesBiography[edit] Von Klenze studied architecture and public building finance under Friedrich Gilly
Friedrich Gilly
in Berlin, and worked as an apprentice to Charles Percier and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine
Pierre François Léonard Fontaine
in Paris. Between 1808 and 1813 he was a court architect of Jérôme Bonaparte, King of Westphalia
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Greek Revival
The Greek Revival was an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States. A product of Hellenism, it may be looked upon as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture. The term was first used by Charles Robert Cockerell
Charles Robert Cockerell
in a lecture he gave as Professor of Architecture to the Royal Academy of Arts, London in 1842.[1] With a newfound access to Greece, or initially the books produced by the few who had actually been able to visit the sites, archaeologist-architects of the period studied the Doric and Ionic orders. In each country it touched, the style was looked on as the expression of local nationalism and civic virtue, and freedom from the lax detail and frivolity that was thought to characterize the architecture of France and Italy, two countries where the style never really took hold
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Faux Painting
Faux painting
Faux painting
or faux finishing are terms used to describe decorative paint finishes that replicate the appearance of materials such as marble, wood or stone.[1] The term comes from the French word faux, meaning false, as these techniques started as a form of replicating materials such as marble and wood with paint, but has subsequently come to encompass many other decorative finishes for walls and furniture including simulating recognisable textures and surfaces.Contents1 History 2 20th century revival 3 Faux finishes 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Faux finishing has been used for millennia, from cave painting to the tombs of ancient Egypt, but what
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Stucco
Stucco
Stucco
or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water. Stucco
Stucco
is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco
Stucco
may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, concrete, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, stucco usually refers to a coating for the outside of a building and plaster one for interiors; as described below, the material itself is often little different
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Marble
Marble
Marble
is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble
Marble
may be foliated. In geology the term "marble" refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone.[1] Marble
Marble
is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.Contents1 Etymology 2 Physical origins 3 Types 4 Uses4.1 Sculpture 4.2 Construction
Construction
marble5 Production5.1 Occupational safety5.1.1 United States6 Microbial degradation 7 Cultural associations 8 Artificial marble 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksEtymologyCarlo Franzoni's sculptural marble chariot clock depicting Clio, the Greek muse of history. Marble
Marble
wall of Ruskeala
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Granite
Granite
Granite
( /ˈɡrænɪt/) is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word "granite" comes from the Latin
Latin
granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. Strictly speaking, granite is an igneous rock with between 20% and 60% quartz by volume, and at least 35% of the total feldspar consisting of alkali feldspar, although commonly the term "granite" is used to refer to a wider range of coarse grained igneous rocks containing quartz and feldspar. The term "granitic" means granite-like and is applied to granite and a group of intrusive igneous rocks with similar textures and slight variations in composition and origin
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Serdobol
Sortavala
Sortavala
(till 1918 Serdobol; Russian: Со́ртавала; Finnish and Karelian: Sortavala; Swedish: Sordavala) is a town in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, located at the northern tip of Lake Ladoga. Population: 19,235 (2010 Census);[3] 21,131 (2002 Census);[5] 22,579 (1989 Census).[6]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Transportation 4 Industry 5 Twin towns and sister cities 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 SourcesHistory[edit] The district of Sortavala
Sortavala
was first recorded in Swedish documents dating to 1468. Russian documents first mention it as Serdovol or Serdobol in 1500. It was ceded to Sweden
Sweden
after the Ingrian War. With the 1721 Treaty of Nystad, the settlement was joined to Russia along with the rest of Old Finland
Old Finland
and was given the Russian name Serdobol
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Jasper
Jasper, an aggregate of microgranular quartz and/or chalcedony and other mineral phases,[1][2] is an opaque,[3] impure variety of silica, usually red, yellow, brown or green in color; and rarely blue. The common red color is due to iron(III) inclusions. The mineral aggregate breaks with a smooth surface and is used for ornamentation or as a gemstone. It can be highly polished and is used for vases, seals, and snuff boxes
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Basilica
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends. In Europe and the Americas it is the most common architectural style for churches though this building plan has become less dominant in new buildings since the later 20th century. Today the term basilica is often used to refer to any large, ornate church building, especially Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox, even if it does not strictly follow this style. The basilican architectural style originated in ancient Rome and was originally used for public buildings where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the main forum
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Assyria
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian
Mesopotamian
kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East
Near East
and the Levant
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Chersonesos Taurica
Chersonesus
Chersonesus
(Ancient Greek: Χερσόνησος, translit. Khersonēsos; Latin: Chersonesus; modern Russian/Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula. The colony was established in the 6th century BC by settlers from Heraclea Pontica. The ancient city is located on the shore of the Black Sea
Black Sea
at the outskirts of Sevastopol
Sevastopol
on the Crimean Peninsula, where it is referred to as Khersones. It has been nicknamed the "Ukrainian Pompeii".[1] The site is now part of the National Preserve of Tauric Chersonesos. The name "Chersonesos" in Greek means "peninsula", and aptly describes the site on which the colony was established
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