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Sudovian Language
Sudovian (also known as Yotvingian, Yatvingian, or Jatvingian) is an extinct western Baltic language of Northeastern Europe. Closely related to the Old Prussian language, it was formerly spoken southwest of the Nemunas river in what is now Lithuania, east of Galindia
Galindia
and north of Yotvingia, and by exiles in East Prussia.Contents1 History1.1 Polish-Yotvingian vocabulary2 See also 3 Notes 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksHistory[edit]Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate).Sudovia and neighboring Galindia
Galindia
were two Baltic tribes or nations mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in the 2nd century AD as Galindai and Soudinoi, (Γαλίνδαι, Σουδινοί)
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John Poliander
Johann Gramann or Graumann (5 July 1487 – 29 April 1541), also known by his pen name Johannes Poliander, was a German pastor, theologian, teacher, humanist, reformer, and Lutheran leader.Contents1 Life 2 Hymn 3 Sources 4 External linksLife[edit] Gramann was born in Neustadt an der Aisch, Middle Franconia. He worked as rector of the Thomasschule in Leipzig. Poliander was Johann Eck's secretary at the 1519 Leipzig Debate, where he met Martin Luther and joined the Protestant Reformation. Poliander became pastor of Altstadt Church in 1525 in Königsberg (Kaliningrad), capital of the new Duchy of Prussia, succeeding the fiery Johannes Amandus. The humanist was well-regarded by his peers, including the Catholic Johannes Dantiscus. He wrote secular and religious poetry in German and Latin. He was a strong advocate with Albert, Duke of Prussia, for the creation of the University of Königsberg
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Vilnius University
Vilnius
Vilnius
University
University
(Lithuanian: Vilniaus universitetas; former names exist) is the oldest university in the Baltic states
Baltic states
and one of the oldest in Northern Europe. It is the largest university in Lithuania. The university was founded in 1579 as the Jesuit
Jesuit
Academy (College) of Vilnius
Vilnius
by Grand Duke of Lithuania
Lithuania
and King of Poland, Stephen Báthory. It was the third oldest university (after the Cracow Academy and the Albertina) in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the aftermath of the Third Partition of Poland
Third Partition of Poland
(1795) and the November Uprising (1830–1831), the university was closed down and suspended its operation until 1919
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Sambia Peninsula
Sambia (Russian: Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula) or Samland[1] (Russian: Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Peninsula
Peninsula
(official name, Russian: Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The peninsula is bounded by the Curonian Lagoon
Curonian Lagoon
(to the north-east), the Vistula Lagoon (on the southwest), the Pregel River
Pregel River
(on the south), and the Deyma River (on the east). As Samland is surrounded on all sides by water, it is technically an island
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Extinct Language
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers,[1] especially if it has no living descendants. In contrast, a dead language is "one that is no longer the native language of any community", even if it is still in use, like Latin.[2] In the modern period, language death has typically resulted from the process of cultural assimilation leading to language shift, and the gradual abandonment of a native language in favour of a foreign lingua franca. A language that currently has living native speakers is called a modern language. As of the 2000s, a total of roughly 7,000 natively spoken languages existed worldwide
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Christoph Hartknoch
Christoph Hartknoch
Christoph Hartknoch
(1644–1687) was a Prussian historian and educator.Contents1 Biography 2 Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
portrait 3 Work 4 NotesBiography[edit] Hartknoch was born in Jablonken (Jabłonka) near Ortelsburg (Szczytno) in the Duchy of Prussia. In 1650 the family moved to Passenheim (Pasym)[1] and there witnessed the brutality and horrors of the Tatar attacks, fighting for the Kingdom of Poland, in southern Prussia. His life was saved by his teacher, who shoved him out the window. Numerous villages in the region were destroyed, but Hartknoch made it to the ducal capital of Königsberg
Königsberg
(Królewiec). In Königsberg
Königsberg
Hartknoch started studying theology at a Protestant institute. Soon after his parents died and he had to take on jobs
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Patrimpas
Potrimpo
Potrimpo
(also Potrimpus, Autrimpo, Natrimpe) was a god of seas or grain in the pagan Prussian mythology. He was one of the three main gods worshiped by the Old Prussians. Much of what is known about this god is derived from unreliable 16th-century sources. He was first mentioned (as Natrimpe) in a 1418 memorandum Collatio Espiscopi Varmiensis sent by the Bishop of Warmia
Bishop of Warmia
to Pope Martin V.[1] The document reminded the Pope that the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
successfully Christianized pagan Prussians, who previously worshiped "demons" Potrimpo
Potrimpo
and Peckols
Peckols
(Patollu).[2] Simon Grunau
Simon Grunau
claimed that Potrimpo was a god of grain and together with thunder god Perkūnas
Perkūnas
and death god Peckols
Peckols
formed a pagan trinity
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Zigmas Zinkevičius
Zigmas Zinkevičius
Zigmas Zinkevičius
(January 4, 1925 in Juodausiai, Ukmergė
Ukmergė
district – February 20, 2018 in Vilnius) was a leading[1] Lithuanian linguist-historian, professor at Vilnius
Vilnius
University, and a full member of the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences.[2] He has contributed to studies in the history of languages, onomastics[3] and other areas.[2] Zinkevičius was a recipient of the Herder Prize, which was presented to him in 1994. Zinkevičius is the author of 30 academic books and several hundred scientific publications in various languages.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Political activities 3 Awards and prizes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] After graduating from the gymnasium at Ukmergė
Ukmergė
in 1945, he enrolled in Vilnius
Vilnius
University.[2] He studied linguistics until 1950
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Gothic Language
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language
Germanic language
that was spoken by the Goths. It is known primarily from the Codex Argenteus, a sixth-century copy of a fourth-century Bible
Bible
translation, and is the only East Germanic language
Germanic language
with a sizable text corpus. All others, including Burgundian and Vandalic, are known, if at all, only from proper names that survived in historical accounts, and from loanwords in other languages such as Portuguese, Spanish, and French. As a Germanic language, Gothic is a part of the Indo-European language family. It is the earliest Germanic language
Germanic language
that is attested in any sizable texts, but it lacks any modern descendants. The oldest documents in Gothic date back to the fourth century
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Slavs
Slavs
Slavs
are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia)
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Suwałki
Suwałki
Suwałki
[suˈvau̯kʲi] ( listen) (Lithuanian: Suvalkai, Yiddish: סואוואַלק‎ Suvalk, German: Suwalken) is a city in northeastern Poland
Poland
with 69,210 inhabitants (2011). It is the capital of Suwałki County
Suwałki County
and one of the most important centers of commerce in the Podlaskie Voivodeship.[1] Suwałki
Suwałki
is the largest city and the capital of the historical Suwałki
Suwałki
Region. Until 1999 it was the capital of Suwałki
Suwałki
Voivodeship. Suwałki
Suwałki
is located about 30 kilometres (19 miles) from the southwestern Lithuanian border and gives its name to the Polish protected area known as Suwałki Landscape Park
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Grammatical Mood
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.[2][3]:p.181;[4] That is, it is the use of verbal inflections that allow speakers to express their attitude toward what they are saying (e.g. a statement of fact, of desire, of command, etc.). The term is also used more broadly to describe the syntactic expression of modality, that is, the use of verb phrases that do not involve inflexion of the verb itself. Mood is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although the same word patterns are used for expressing more than one of these meanings at the same time in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages. (See tense–aspect–mood for a discussion of this.) Some examples of moods are indicative, interrogative, imperative, subjunctive, injunctive, optative, and potential. These are all finite forms of the verb
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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Hrodna
Grodno
Grodno
or Hrodna (Belarusian: Гродна, Hrodna [ˈɣrɔdna]; Russian: Гродно, tr. Grodno, IPA: [ˈɡrodnə], see also other names) is a city in western Belarus. It is located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
(about 20 km (12 mi) and 30 km (19 mi) away respectively). It has 365,610 inhabitants (2016 census)
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Belarus
Coordinates: 53°N 23°E / 53°N 23°E / 53; 23 Republic
Republic
of Belarus Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian) Республика Беларусь (Russian)FlagNational emblemAnthem: Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian) Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś (English: State Anthem of Belarus)Location of  Belarus  (green) in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Minsk 53°55′N 27°33′E / 53.917°N 27.550
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Ukraine
42,418,235 [4] (32nd)• 2001 census48,457,102[3]• Density73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate• Total$366 billion[5] (50th)• Per capita$8,656[5] (114th)GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate• Total$104 billion[5] (62nd)• Per capita$2,459[5] (132nd)Gini (2015)  25.5[6] low · 18thHDI (2015)  0.743[7] high · 84thCurrency Ukrainian hryvnia
Ukrainian hryvnia
(UAH)Time zone EET (UTC+2[8])• Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)Drives on the rightCalling code +380 ISO 3166 code UA Internet
Internet
TLD.ua .укрAn independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.This article contains Cyrillic text
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