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Struve Geodetic Arc
The STRUVE GEODETIC ARC is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest
Hammerfest
in Norway
Norway
to the Black Sea
Black Sea
, through ten countries and over 2,820 km, which yielded the first accurate measurement of a meridian. The chain was established and used by the German-born Russian scientist Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
in the years 1816 to 1855 to establish the exact size and shape of the earth . At that time, the chain passed merely through two countries: Union of Sweden- Norway
Norway
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. The Arc's first point is located in Tartu Observatory in Estonia, where Struve conducted much of his research
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Pullinki
PULLINKI is a 335 meter high mountain in northern Sweden , near the town of Övertorneå . This mountain marks one of the locations for the Struve Geodetic Arc , a world heritage . There is also an alpine ski resort on the mountain. It has 253 metre altitude difference and 16 slopes. Coordinates : 66°38′N 23°49′E / 66.633°N 23.817°E / 66.633; 23.817 This article about a location in Norrbotten County , Sweden is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Pajala
PAJALA is a locality and the seat of Pajala Municipality in Norrbotten County , Sweden , with 1,958 inhabitants in 2010. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Literature about Pajala * 3 Climate * 4 References HISTORYLars Levi Laestadius , the famous botanist, Lutheran minister, and founder of the revivalist movement Laestadianism , lived and worked in Pajala Municipality in the Mid-19th Century. He lived in Kengis , but in 1869 his house and grave and the whole church of Kengis were moved to Pajala. The town was mistakenly bombed by Soviet airplanes during the Finnish/Soviet Winter War , in spring 1940. Seven Soviet planes dropped 134 bombs, a mix of explosive and firebombs, which destroyed six buildings, badly damaging telephone wires, and making the streets impossible to drive on due to 43 big craters. No human deaths were recorded, although two persons were slightly injured
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Övertorneå
ÖVERTORNEå or YLITORNIO is a locality and the seat of Övertorneå Municipality in Norrbotten County , Sweden
Sweden
with 1,917 inhabitants in 2010. It is located at the shore of the Torne River , opposite to Ylitornio ( Övertorneå
Övertorneå
is Swedish for Ylitornio). Övertorneå
Övertorneå
means Upper Torneå, based on a division of the Torneå parish in two parts in the 16th century. Until the border between Sweden
Sweden
and Finland
Finland
was drawn at the Torne River in 1809, the two villages on both sides of the river were one
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Haparanda
HAPARANDA (Finnish : Haaparanta, meaning aspen beach) is a locality and the seat of Haparanda Municipality in Norrbotten
Norrbotten
County , Sweden
Sweden
. It is adjacent to Tornio , Finland
Finland
. Haparanda
Haparanda
had a population of 4,856 in 2010, of out of a municipal total of 10,200 inhabitants. Haparanda
Haparanda
is, despite its small population, for historical reasons often still referred to as a city . Statistics Sweden
Sweden
, however, only counts localities with more than 10,000 inhabitants as cities. Haparanda
Haparanda
is located at the northerly extreme of the Swedish coastline, and far removed from large cities. Its summers are very mild for a coastal location so far north, and winters are normally not extremely cold in spite of the relative proximity to the Arctic Circle
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Enontekiö
ENONTEKIö (Finnish pronunciation: ; Northern Sami
Northern Sami
: Eanodat, Swedish : Enontekis) is a municipality in the Finnish part of Lapland with approx. 1,900 inhabitants. It is situated in the outermost northwest of the country and occupies a large and very sparsely populated area of about 8,000 square kilometres (3,100 sq mi) between the Swedish and Norwegian border. Finland's highest point, the Halti fell with a height of 1,324 metres (4,344 ft) above the mean sea level , lies in the north of Enontekiö, where the municipality occupies a part of the Scandinavian Mountains
Scandinavian Mountains
. The administrative centre of Enontekiö
Enontekiö
is the village of Hetta . About one fifth of the community's population are Sami people
Sami people
. Enontekiö's main industries are tourism and reindeer husbandry
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Jupukka
Coordinates : 67°16′38″N 23°14′44″E / 67.27710°N 23.24545°E / 67.27710; 23.24545 JUPUKKA is a Swedish mountain north of Pajala in Swedish Lapland . Jupukka is 277 metres high. This mountain marks one of the locations for the Struve Geodetic Arc . This article about a location in Norrbotten County , Sweden is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Kiruna
KIRUNA ( Northern Sami
Northern Sami
: Giron, Finnish : Kiiruna) is the northernmost town in Sweden
Sweden
, situated in the province of Lapland . It had 18,148 inhabitants in 2010 and is the seat of Kiruna
Kiruna
Municipality (population: 23,099 in 2008 ) in Norrbotten County
Norrbotten County
. Esrange
Esrange
Space Center was established in Kiruna
Kiruna
in the 1960s. Also in Kiruna
Kiruna
are the Institute of Space Physics and the Department of Space Science belonging to Luleå University of Technology
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World Heritage List
A WORLD HERITAGE SITE is a landmark or area which has been officially recognized by the United Nations
United Nations
, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO
UNESCO
). Sites are selected on the basis of having cultural, historical, scientific or some other form of significance, and they are legally protected by international treaties. UNESCO
UNESCO
regards these sites as being important to the collective interests of humanity
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Alta, Norway
ALTA ( listen (help ·info ); Northern Sami : Áltá; Kven : Alattio or Alta) is the most populated municipality in Finnmark
Finnmark
county , Norway
Norway
. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Alta . Some of the main villages in the municipality include Kåfjord , Komagfjord , Kvenvik , Langfjordbotn , Leirbotn , Rafsbotn , Talvik , and Tverrelvdalen . The 3,849-square-kilometre (1,486 sq mi) municipality is the 7th largest municipality by area out of the 426 municipalities in Norway. Alta is the 55th most populous municipality in Norway
Norway
with a population of 20,446. The municipality's population density is 5.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (15/sq mi) and its population has increased by 13% over the last decade
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Kautokeino
KAUTOKEINO (help ·info ) (Norwegian ) or GUOVDAGEAIDNU (Northern Sami ) (also: Finnish : Koutokeino and Kven : Koutokeino) is a municipality in Finnmark
Finnmark
county , Norway
Norway
. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Guovdageaidnu/ Kautokeino
Kautokeino
. Other villages include Láhpoluoppal and Máze . The 9,707-square-kilometre (3,748 sq mi) municipality is the largest by area in Norway. Kautokeino
Kautokeino
is the 273rd most populous municipality in Norway
Norway
with a population of 2,956. The municipality's population density is 0.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (0.78/sq mi) and its population has decreased by 1.4% over the last decade
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Tynnyrilaki
TYNNYRILAKI is a 445-meter-high (1,460 ft) mountain 120 km E. of Kiruna , Sweden . It's the highest point of an area called Pingisvaara. This mountain marks one of the locations for the Struve Geodetic Arc . Coordinates : 68°15′18″N 22°58′58″E / 68.25500°N 22.98278°E / 68.25500; 22.98278 This article about a location in Norrbotten County , Sweden is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Aavasaksa
AAVASAKSA is a sharp-edged hill in Ylitornio municipality in Finnish Lapland . It has an elevation of 242 metres (794 ft). Aavasaksa is famous for its sights both towards Finland and Sweden, and it is included to the list of the National landscapes of Finland . Emperor Alexander II of Russia visited the site in 1876. Decorative hunting cabin Keisarinmaja (English: the Emperor's camp) is one of the buildings on top of the hill; it is now used as a cafe . Due to Aavasaksa's distinctive elevation above other nearby hills, it was first used by Pierre Louis Maupertuis in the French Geodesic Mission (1736–1737), and later became part of the Struve Geodetic Arc . As a result of this, UNESCO named Aavasaksa a World Heritage Site , along with the 33 other sites used in the Struve Geodetic Arc. Aavasaksa is often considered the southernmost point in Finland where the midnight sun is literally visible
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Ylitornio
YLITORNIO (Northern Sami : Badje-Duortnus, Swedish : Övertorneå) is a municipality of Finland
Finland
. It is located in the province of Lapland along the Tornio
Tornio
River , opposite the Swedish town of Övertorneå . The municipality has a population of 4,265 (31 March 2016) and covers an area of 2,028.74 square kilometres (783.30 sq mi) of which 183.83 km2 (70.98 sq mi) is water. The population density is 2.1 inhabitants per square kilometre (5.4/sq mi). The municipality is unilingually Finnish in contrast to much of far-western Finland. Finland
Finland
is officially bilingual . A unique ski flying hill project has been presented. The inruns of the hills will be through a mountain inside a pipe tunnel
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University Of Tartu Old Observatory
OLD or OLD may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Places * 3 People * 4 Other * 5 See also MUSIC * Old (Starflyer 59 album) , an 2003 album by Starflyer 59 * Old (Danny Brown album) , a 2013 album by Danny Brown * "Old" (song) , a 1995 song by Machine Head * OLD (band) , a grindcore/industrial metal groupPLACES * Old, Baranya , Hungary *
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Simuna, Estonia
SIMUNA is a small borough (Estonian : alevik) in Väike-Maarja Parish , Lääne-Viru County , in northeastern Estonia . It had a population of 454 on 1 January 2011. Before 2005 Simuna was the centre of Avanduse Parish which was merged to Väike-Maarja Parish . One of the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc is located in Simuna. Simuna Spring CONTENTS * 1 Avanduse manor * 2 Notable natives and residents * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links AVANDUSE MANORAvanduse manor (German : Awandus) was first mentioned in 1494. The origins of the present-day building was a building that was erected in 1679-1684 by Tallinn master builder Gerd Vorberg at the initiative of the landowner at the time, Gideon von Fock. The building has however been heavily rebuilt since, with final changes being made by architect Rudolf von Engelhardt in 1890
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