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Struve Geodetic Arc
The Struve Geodetic Arc
Struve Geodetic Arc
is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest
Hammerfest
in Norway
Norway
to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km, which yielded the first accurate measurement of a meridian.[1] The chain was established and used by the German-born Russian scientist Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
in the years 1816 to 1855 to establish the exact size and shape of the earth. At that time, the chain passed merely through two countries: Union of Sweden- Norway
Norway
and the Russian Empire
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Estonia
Estonia
Estonia
(/ɛˈstoʊniə/ ( listen);[11][12] Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsti]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
(Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.[13] It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
with Finland
Finland
on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia
Latvia
(343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
and Russia
Russia
(338.6 km).[14] Across the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
lies Sweden
Sweden
in the west and Finland
Finland
in the north
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Enontekiö
Enontekiö
Enontekiö
(Finnish pronunciation: [ˈenontekiø]; Northern Sami: Eanodat, Swedish: Enontekis) is a municipality in the Finnish part of Lapland with approx. 1,900[2] inhabitants. It is situated in the outermost northwest of the country and occupies a large and very sparsely populated area of about 8,400 square kilometres (3,200 sq mi)[1] between the Swedish and Norwegian border. Finland's highest point, the Halti
Halti
fell with a height of 1,324 metres (4,344 ft) above the mean sea level, lies in the north of Enontekiö, where the municipality occupies a part of the Scandinavian Mountains. The administrative centre of Enontekiö
Enontekiö
is the village of Hetta
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Union Between Sweden And Norway
b. ^ The written Norwegian language
Norwegian language
ceased to exist in the first half of the 16th century and was replaced by Danish. Written Danish was still used during the union with Sweden, but was slightly norwegianized in the latter half of the 19th century. In 1885, the Storting
Storting
accepted Landsmål
Landsmål
as an official written language at par with Danish. c. ^ 1820: 2,585,000 in Sweden, and 970,000 in Norway.[1] 1905: 5,260,000 in Sweden, and 2,300,000 in Norway.[2] d. ^ The Swedish Riksdag
Riksdag
was a diet composed of four estates until 1866, when it was transformed into a bicameral legislature
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World Heritage List
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Alta, Norway
Alta ( listen (help·info); Northern Sami: Áltá;[2] Kven: Alattio or Alta) is the most populated municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Alta. Some of the main villages in the municipality include Kåfjord, Komagfjord, Kvenvik, Langfjordbotn, Leirbotn, Rafsbotn, Talvik, and Tverrelvdalen. The 3,849-square-kilometre (1,486 sq mi) municipality is the 7th largest municipality by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Alta is the 55th most populous municipality in Norway
Norway
with a population of 20,446
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Kiruna
Kiruna
Kiruna
(Northern Sami: Giron, Finnish: Kiiruna) is the northernmost town in Sweden, situated in the province of Lapland
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Pajala
Pajala
Pajala
is a locality and the seat of Pajala Municipality
Pajala Municipality
in Norrbotten County, Sweden, with 1,958 inhabitants in 2010.[1]Contents1 History 2 Literature about Pajala 3 Climate 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] Lars Levi Laestadius, the famous botanist, Lutheran minister, and founder of the revivalist movement Laestadianism, lived and worked in Pajala Municipality
Pajala Municipality
in the Mid-19th Century. He lived in Kengis, but in 1869 his house and grave and the whole church of Kengis were moved to Pajala.[2] The town was mistakenly bombed by Soviet airplanes during the Finnish/Soviet Winter War, in spring 1940. Seven Soviet planes dropped 134 bombs, a mix of explosive and firebombs, which destroyed six buildings, badly damaging telephone wires, and making the streets impossible to drive on due to 43 big craters
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Övertorneå
Övertorneå
Övertorneå
or Ylitornio
Ylitornio
is a locality and the seat of Övertorneå Municipality in Norrbotten
Norrbotten
County, Sweden
Sweden
with 1,917 inhabitants in 2010.[1] It is located at the shore of the Torne River, opposite to Ylitornio ( Övertorneå
Övertorneå
is Swedish for Ylitornio). Övertorneå
Övertorneå
means Upper Torneå, based on a division of the Torneå parish in two parts in the 16th century
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Haparanda
Haparanda
Haparanda
(Finnish: Haaparanta, meaning aspen beach) is a locality and the seat of Haparanda Municipality
Haparanda Municipality
in Norrbotten
Norrbotten
County, Sweden. It is adjacent to Tornio, Finland. Haparanda
Haparanda
had a population of 4,856 in 2010,[1] of out of a municipal total of 10,200 inhabitants. Haparanda
Haparanda
is, despite its small population, for historical reasons often still referred to as a city. Statistics Sweden, however, only counts localities with more than 10,000 inhabitants as cities. Haparanda
Haparanda
is located at the northerly extreme of the Swedish coastline, and far removed from large cities
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Ylitornio
Ylitornio
Ylitornio
(Northern Sami: Badje-Duortnus, Swedish: Övertorneå) is a municipality of Finland. It is located in the province of Lapland along the Tornio
Tornio
River, opposite the Swedish town of Övertorneå. The municipality has a population of 4,127 (31 August 2017)[2] and covers an area of 2,212.47 square kilometres (854.24 sq mi) of which 183.83 km2 (70.98 sq mi) is water.[1] The population density is 2.03 inhabitants per square kilometre (5.3/sq mi). The municipality is unilingually Finnish in contrast to much of far-western Finland. Finland
Finland
is officially bilingual. A unique ski flying hill project has been presented
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Reference Ellipsoid
In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body. Because of their relative simplicity, reference ellipsoids are used as a preferred surface on which geodetic network computations are performed and point coordinates such as latitude, longitude, and elevation are defined.Contents1 Ellipsoid
Ellipsoid
parameters 2 Coordinates 3 Historical Earth
Earth
ellipsoids 4 Ellipsoids for other planetary bodies 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links Ellipsoid
Ellipsoid
parameters[edit] In 1687 Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
published the Principia in which he included a proof[1][not in citation given] that a rotating self-gravitating fluid body in equilibrium takes the form of an oblate ellipsoid of revolution which he termed an oblate spheroid
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Tornio
Tornio
Tornio
(official name: Tornion kaupunki; in Northern Sami: Duortnus; in Swedish: Torneå) is a city and municipality in Lapland, Finland. The city forms a cross-border twin city together with Haparanda
Haparanda
on the Swedish side. The municipality covers an area of 1,348.83 square kilometres (520.79 sq mi), of which 161.59 km2 (62.39 sq mi) is water.[1] The population density is 18.48 inhabitants per square kilometre (47.9/sq mi), with a total population of 21,939 (31 August 2017).[2] It borders the Swedish municipality of Haparanda
Haparanda
(in Finnish: Haaparanta)
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Korpilahti
Korpilahti is a former municipality of Finland. Together with Jyväskylän maalaiskunta, Korpilahti was consolidated with Jyväskylä on January 1, 2009. It is located in the former province of Western Finland and is part of the Central Finland region. The municipality had a population of 5,016 (2003). In addition to this, there are about 4,500 summer-time inhabitants visiting the 2,000 summer cottages. Korpilahti covered an area of 794.62 km² of which 177.44 km² is water. The population density was 6.3 inhabitants per km². The municipality is unilingually Finnish. The municipality has previously also been known as "Korpilax" in Swedish documents, but is today referred to as "Korpilahti" also in Swedish.[1] Politically, Centre Party is dominant. Korpilahti is one of the poorest municipalities in Finland with an unemployment rate of 14.4% (2002). Korpilahti is relatively well known for its beautiful nature, with mountains and about 200 lakes
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Lapinjärvi (municipality)
Lapinjärvi (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈlapinˌjærʋi]; Swedish: Lappträsk) is a municipality of Finland. It is located in the Uusimaa region
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Pyhtää
Pyhtää
Pyhtää
(Swedish: Pyttis) is a municipality of Finland.Contents1 Overview 2 Villages 3 Twinnings 4 References 5 External linksOverview[edit] It is located in the Kymenlaakso
Kymenlaakso
region. The municipality has a population of 5,307 (31 August 2017)[2] and covers an area of 780.96 square kilometres (301.53 sq mi) of which 456.24 km2 (176.16 sq mi) is water.[1] The population density is 16.34 inhabitants per square kilometre (42.3/sq mi).The medieval church of Pyhtää. Lithography by Johan Knutson, mid 19th century.The medieval church (as opposed to the municipality) is situated in the village of Itäkirkonkylä ("East Church Village"). During the Reformation, the rather beautiful and moving pictures on the walls were whitewashed over. Some years ago, they were rediscovered and the whitewash removed
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