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Strepsiptera
Bahiaxenidae Bohartillidae Callipharixenidae Corioxenidae †Cretostylopidae Elenchidae Halictophagidae †Mengeidae Mengenillidae Myrmecolacidae †Protoxenidae StylopidaeThe Strepsiptera
Strepsiptera
(translation: "twisted wing"', giving rise to the insects' common name, twisted-wing parasites) are an endopterygote order of insects with nine extant families making up about 600 species. The early-stage larvae and the short-lived adult males are not sessile, but most of their lives are spent as endoparasites in other insects, such as bees, wasps, leafhoppers, silverfish, and cockroaches.[1]Contents1 Appearance and biology 2 Classification2.1 Families3 Use in population control 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksAppearance and biology[edit] Males of the Strepsiptera
Strepsiptera
have wings, legs, eyes, and antennae, and superficially look like flies, though their mouthparts cannot be used for feeding
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Arthropod Leg
The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments (called podomeres) are of Latin
Latin
origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa (meaning hip, plural coxae), trochanter (compare trochanter), femur (plural femora), tibia (plural tibiae), tarsus (plural tarsi), ischium (plural ischia), metatarsus, carpus, dactylus (meaning finger), patella (plural patellae). Homologies of leg segments between groups are difficult to prove and are the source of much argument. Some authors posit up to eleven segments per leg for the most recent common ancestor of extant arthropods[1] but modern arthropods have eight or fewer
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Leafhopper
Almost 40, see textA leafhopper is the common name for any species from the family Cicadellidae. These minute insects, colloquially known as hoppers, are plant feeders that suck plant sap from grass, shrubs, or trees. Their hind legs are modified for jumping, and are covered with hairs that facilitate the spreading of a secretion over their bodies that acts as a water repellent and carrier of pheromones.[1] They undergo a partial metamorphosis, and have various host associations, varying from very generalized to very specific
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Wasp
A wasp is any insect of the order Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
and suborder Apocrita that is neither a bee nor an ant. The Apocrita
Apocrita
have a common evolutionary ancestor and form a clade; wasps as a group do not form a clade, but are paraphyletic with respect to bees and ants. The most commonly known wasps, such as yellowjackets and hornets, are in the family Vespidae
Vespidae
and are eusocial, living together in a nest with an egg-laying queen and non-reproducing workers. Eusociality
Eusociality
is favoured by the unusual haplodiploid system of sex determination in Hymenoptera, as it makes sisters exceptionally closely related to each other. However, the majority of wasp species are solitary, with each adult female living and breeding independently. Wasps play many ecological roles. Some are predators or pollinators, whether to feed themselves or to provision their nests
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Bee
Apiformes (from Latin 'apis')Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea
Apoidea
and are presently considered a clade, called Anthophila. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees in seven recognized biological families.[1][2] They are found on every continent except Antarctica, in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants. Some species including honey bees, bumblebees, and stingless bees live socially in colonies. Bees are adapted for feeding on nectar and pollen, the former primarily as an energy source and the latter primarily for protein and other nutrients. Most pollen is used as food for larvae
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Sessility (zoology)
In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile. This is distinct from the second meaning of sessility which refers to an organism or biological structure attached directly by its base without a stalk. Sessile organisms can move through outside sources (such as water currents) but are usually permanently attached to something
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Larvae
A larva (plural: larvae /ˈlɑːrviː/) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle. The larva's appearance is generally very different from the adult form (e.g. caterpillars and butterflies) including different unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form. Their diet may also be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to environments separate from adults. For example, some larvae such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments, but can live outside water as adult frogs. By living in a distinct environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators and reduce competition for resources with the adult population. Animals in the larval stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form
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Antenna (biology)
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. Antennae are connected to the first one or two segments of the arthropod head. They vary widely in form, but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are typically sensory organs, the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste.[1][2] Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding, swimming, and even anchoring the arthropod to a substrate.[2] Larval arthropods have antennae that differ from those of the adult. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larvae that use their antennae for swimming
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Arthropod Mouthparts
The mouthparts of arthropods have evolved into a number of forms, each adapted to a different style or mode of feeding. Most mouthparts represent modified, paired appendages, which in ancestral forms would have appeared more like legs than mouthparts. In general, arthropods have mouthparts for cutting and chewing, piercing and sucking, shredding and chewing, siphoning, and filtering. This article outlines the basic elements of four arthropod groups: insects, myriapods, crustaceans and chelicerates. Insects are used as the model, with the novel mouthparts of the other groups introduced in turn
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Pheromone
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting like hormones outside the body of the secreting individual, to impact the behavior of the receiving individuals.[1] There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior or physiology. Pheromones are used from basic unicellular prokaryotes to complex multicellular eukaryotes.[2] Their use among insects has been particularly well documented
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Viviparity
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body. Viviparity
Viviparity
and the adjective viviparous derive from Latin vivus ("living") and parire ("to bear young").[1]Contents1 Reproductive mode 2 Evolution 3 References 4 See alsoReproductive mode[edit]Hemotrophic viviparity: a mammal embryo (centre) attached by its umbilical cord to a placenta (top) which provides foodFurther information: Modes of reproduction Five modes of reproduction have been differentiated in animals[2] based on relations between zygote and parents. The five include two nonviviparous modes: ovuliparity, with external fertilisation, and oviparity, with internal fertilisation
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Arthropod Coxa
The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments (called podomeres) are of Latin
Latin
origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa (meaning hip, plural coxae), trochanter (compare trochanter), femur (plural femora), tibia (plural tibiae), tarsus (plural tarsi), ischium (plural ischia), metatarsus, carpus, dactylus (meaning finger), patella (plural patellae). Homologies of leg segments between groups are difficult to prove and are the source of much argument. Some authors posit up to eleven segments per leg for the most recent common ancestor of extant arthropods[1] but modern arthropods have eight or fewer
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William Kirby (entomologist)
William Kirby (19 September 1759 – 4 July 1850) was an English entomologist, an original member of the Linnean Society
Linnean Society
and a Fellow of the Royal Society, as well as a country priest, making him an eminent parson-naturalist.[1][2] He is considered the "founder of entomology".Contents1 Family origins and early studies 2 Major publications 3 Institution-founding activities 4 Works 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References7.1 Images8 External linksFamily origins and early studies[edit] Kirby was a grandson of the Suffolk
Suffolk
topographer John Kirby (author of The Suffolk
Suffolk
Traveller) and nephew of artist-topographer Joshua Kirby (a friend of Thomas Gainsborough's). He was also a cousin of the children's author Mrs Sarah Trimmer. His parents were William Kirby, a solicitor, and Lucy Meadows
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Femur
The femur (/ˈfiːmər/, pl. femurs or femora /ˈfɛmərə, ˈfɛmrə/[1][2]) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles such as lizards, and amphibians such as frogs. In vertebrates with four legs such as dogs and horses, the femur is found only in the hindlimbs. The head of the femur articulates with the acetabulum in the pelvic bone forming the hip joint, while the distal part of the femur articulates with the tibia and kneecap forming the knee joint. By most measures the femur is the strongest bone in the body
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