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SPQR
SPQR
SPQR
is an initialism of a phrase in Latin: Senātus Populusque Rōmānus ("The Roman Senate
Roman Senate
and People", or more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome"; Classical Latin: [sɛˈnaː.tʊs pɔpʊˈlʊs.kᶣɛ roːˈmaː.nʊs]), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome
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Empire Of Trebizond
The Empire of Trebizond
Empire of Trebizond
or the Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia
Anatolia
and the southern Crimea. The empire was first formed as a revolt against the rule of the Angelos dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, which had deposed Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos
Komnenos
in 1185
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Triumvirate
A triumvirate (Latin: triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (Latin: triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or informal. Though the three are notionally equal, this is rarely the case in reality. The term can also be used to describe a state with three different military leaders who all claim to be the sole leader. In the context of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russia, the term troika (Russian for "group of three") is used for "triumvirate"
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Augustus (honorific)
Augustus
Augustus
(plural augusti; /ɔːˈɡʌstəs/;[1]Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs], Latin
Latin
for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor. On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by Roman emperors thereafter. The feminine form Augusta was used for Roman empresses and other females of the Imperial family. The masculine and feminine forms originated in the time of the Roman Republic, in connection with things considered divine or sacred in traditional Roman religion
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Pontifex Maximus
The Pontifex Maximus
Pontifex Maximus
or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest"[1][2][3]) was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome. This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion, open only to patricians until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic, it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus, it was subsumed into the Imperial office
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Western Roman Empire
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire
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Timeline Of Roman History
This is a timeline of Roman history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Roman Kingdom
Roman Kingdom
and Republic and the Roman and Byzantine Empires. To read about the background of these events, see Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
and History of the Byzantine Empire. Following tradition, this timeline marks the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
as the end of Rome
Rome
in the west and east, respectively. See Third Rome
Third Rome
for a discussion of claimants to the succession of Rome. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness
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Magister Equitum
The Magister equitum, in English Master of the Horse
Master of the Horse
or Master of the Cavalry, was a Roman magistrate
Roman magistrate
appointed as lieute
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Magister Militum
Magister militum
Magister militum
( Latin
Latin
for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.[dubious – discuss] Used alone, the term referred to the senior military officer (equivalent to a war theatre commander, the emperor remaining the supreme commander) of the Empire
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Lictor
A lictor (possibly from Latin: ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium. Lictors were used since the Roman Kingdom, and according to Roman historian Livy, the custom may have originated earlier, in the Etruscan civilization.Contents1 Origin 2 Eligibility 3 Tasks 4 Lictor
Lictor
curiatus 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOrigin[edit]A fasces was the symbol of a LictorAccording to Livy, lictors were introduced by Rome's first king, Romulus, who appointed 12 lictors to attend him. Livy
Livy
refers to two competing traditions for the reason that Romulus
Romulus
chose that number of lictors
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King Of Rome
The King of Rome
The King of Rome
(Latin: Rex Romae) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom.[1] According to legend, the first king of Rome
Rome
was Romulus, who founded the city in 753 BC upon the Palatine Hill. Seven legendary kings are said to have ruled Rome
Rome
until 509 BC, when the last king was overthrown. These kings ruled for an average of 35 years. The kings after Romulus
Romulus
were not known to be dynasts and no reference is made to the hereditary principle until after the fifth king Tarquinius Priscus
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Roman Kingdom
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome
Rome
and its territories. Little is certain about the history of the kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it that were written during the Republic and Empire are largely based on legends
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Prefect
Prefect
Prefect
(from the Latin
Latin
praefectus, substantive adjectival[1] form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area. A prefect's office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, but in various post- Roman empire
Roman empire
cases there is a prefect without a prefecture or vice versa
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Roman Emperor
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus
Augustus
or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps senatus, Consul
Consul
and Pontifex Maximus. The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both
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Legatus
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military office in the Roman army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer. Initially used to delegate power, the term became formalized under Augustus
Augustus
as the officer in command of a legion. From the times of the Roman Republic, legates had received large shares of the army's booty at the end of a successful campaign, which made the position a lucrative one, so it could often attract even distinguished consuls (e.g., the consul Lucius Julius Caesar volunteered late in the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
as a legate under his first cousin once removed, Gaius Julius Caesar).Contents1 Overview 2 Diplomatic legatus 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] The men who filled the office of legate were drawn from among the senatorial class of Rome
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