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Solder
Solder
Solder
(/ˈsoʊldər/,[1] /ˈsɒldər/[1] or in North America /ˈsɒdər/[2]) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces. The word solder comes from the Middle English word soudur, via Old French
Old French
solduree and soulder, from the Latin
Latin
solidare, meaning "to make solid".[3] In fact, solder must first be melted in order to adhere to and connect the pieces together after cooling, which requires that an alloy suitable for use as solder have a lower melting point than the pieces being joined. The solder should also be resistant to oxidative and corrosive effects that would degrade the joint over time
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Tensile Strength
Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength
(UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations,[1][2][3] is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size. In other words, tensile strength resists tension (being pulled apart), whereas compressive strength resists compression (being pushed together). Ultimate tensile strength
Ultimate tensile strength
is measured by the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In the study of strength of materials, tensile strength, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently. Some materials break very sharply, without plastic deformation, in what is called a brittle failure
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Solidus (chemistry)
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized). The solidus is applied, among other materials, to metal alloys, ceramics, and natural rocks and minerals. The solidus quantifies the temperature at which melting of a substance begins, but the substance is not necessarily melted completely, i.e., the solidus is not necessarily a melting point. For this distinction, the solidus may be contrasted to the liquidus. The solidus is always less than or equal to the liquidus, but they need not coincide. If a gap exists between the solidus and liquidus it is called the freezing range, and within that gap, the substance consists of a mixture of solid and liquid phases (like a slurry)
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Manganese
Manganese
Manganese
is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in minerals in combination with iron. Manganese
Manganese
is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for pyrolusite and other black minerals from the region of Magnesia in Greece, which also gave its name to magnesium and the iron ore magnetite. By the mid-18th century, Swedish-German chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite (now known to be manganese dioxide) contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it
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Shear Strength
In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear. A shear load is a force that tends to produce a sliding failure on a material along a plane that is parallel to the direction of the force. When a paper is cut with scissors, the paper fails in shear. In structural and mechanical engineering, the shear strength of a component is important for designing the dimensions and materials to be used for the manufacture or construction of the component (e.g. beams, plates, or bolts)
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Sandia National Laboratories
The Sandia National Laboratories
Sandia National Laboratories
(SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell
Honeywell
International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories. In December 2016, it was announced that National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, under the direction of Honeywell International, will take over the management of Sandia National Laboratories starting on May 1, 2017.[4][5][6][2] Their primary mission is to develop, engineer, and test the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons. The primary campus is located on Kirtland Air Force Base
Kirtland Air Force Base
in Albuquerque, New Mexico
Albuquerque, New Mexico
and the other is in Livermore, California, next to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
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Iowa State University
Iowa
Iowa
State University of Science and Technology, generally referred to as Iowa
Iowa
State, is a public flagship[4] land-grant and space-grant research university located in Ames, Iowa, United States. It is the largest university in the state of Iowa
Iowa
and the 3rd largest university in the Big 12 athletic conference
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Aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace
is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics). Aerospace
Aerospace
organizations research, design, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft and/or spacecraft. Aerospace
Aerospace
activity is very diverse, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace
Aerospace
is not the same as airspace, which is the physical air space directly above a location on the ground
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Waste Electrical And Electronic Equipment Directive
The Waste
Waste
Electrical
Electrical
and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE Directive) is the European Community
European Community
Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) which, together with the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC, became European Law
European Law
in February 2003. The WEEE Directive set collection, recycling and recovery targets for all types of electrical goods, with a minimum rate of 4 kilograms per head of population per annum recovered for recycling by 2009. The RoHS Directive set restrictions upon European manufacturers as to the material content of new electronic equipment placed on the market. The symbol adopted by the European Council
European Council
to represent waste electrical and electronic equipment comprises a crossed-out wheelie bin with or without a single black line underneath the symbol
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European Union
The European Union
European Union
(EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states
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Electrochemical
Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry
is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice-versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change. When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electric current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction. Chemical reactions
Chemical reactions
where electrons are transferred directly between molecules and/or atoms are called oxidation-reduction or (redox) reactions
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Liquidus
The liquidus temperature, TL or Tliq specifies the temperature above which a material is completely liquid,[1] and the maximum temperature at which crystals can co-exist with the melt in thermodynamic equilibrium. It is mostly used for impure substances (mixtures) such as glasses, alloys and rocks. Above the liquidus temperature the material is homogeneous and liquid at equilibrium. Below the liquidus temperature, more and more crystals will form in the melt if one waits a sufficiently long time, depending on the material. Alternately, homogeneous glasses can be obtained through sufficiently fast cooling, i.e., through kinetic inhibition of the crystallization process. The crystal phase that crystallizes first on cooling a substance to its liquidus temperature is termed primary crystalline phase or primary phase
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Mass-production
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods.[1] The term mass production was popularized by a 1926 article in the Encyclopædia Britannica supplement that was written based on correspondence with Ford Motor Company
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Freezing
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point. For most substances, the melting and freezing points are the same temperature; however, certain substances possess differing solid–liquid transition temperatures. For example, agar displays a hysteresis in its melting point and freezing point. It melts at 85 °C (185 °F) and solidifies from 32 °C to 40 °C (89.6 °F to 104 °F).[1]Contents1 Crystallization 2 Supercooling 3 Exothermicity 4 Vitrification 5 Expansion 6 Freezing of living organisms6.1 Bacteria 6.2 Plants 6.3 Animals7 Food preservation 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksCrystallization[edit] Main article: Crystallization Most liquids freeze by crystallization, formation of crystalline solid from the uniform liquid
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Middle English
Middle English
Middle English
(ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
(1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.[2] This stage of the development of the English language
English language
roughly followed the High to the Late Middle Ages. Middle English
Middle English
developed out of Late Old English, seeing many dramatic changes in its grammar, pronunciation and orthography. Writing customs during Middle English
Middle English
times varied widely, but by the end of the period, about 1470, aided by the invention of the printing press, a standard based on the London
London
dialect (Chancery Standard) had become established
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Old French
Old French
Old French
(franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France
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