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Sitar
The sitar (English: /ˈsɪtɑːr/ or /sɪˈtɑːr/; सितार, Punjabi: ਸਿਤਾਰ, sitāra pronounced [sɪˈtaːr]) is a plucked stringed instrument used in Hindustani classical music. The instrument is believed to have been derived from the veena, an ancient Indian instrument, which was modified by a Mughal court musician to conform with the tastes of his Mughal patrons and named after a Persian instrument called the setar (meaning three strings). The sitar flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries and arrived at its present form in 18th-century India. It derives its distinctive timbre and resonance from sympathetic strings, bridge design, a long hollow neck and a gourd-shaped resonance chamber
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Resonator
A resonator is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies, called its resonant frequencies, with greater amplitude than at others. The oscillations in a resonator can be either electromagnetic or mechanical (including acoustic). Resonators are used to either generate waves of specific frequencies or to select specific frequencies from a signal. Musical instruments use acoustic resonators that produce sound waves of specific tones. Another example is quartz crystals used in electronic devices such as radio transmitters and quartz watches to produce oscillations of very precise frequency. A cavity resonator is one in which waves exist in a hollow space inside the device. In electronics and radio, microwave cavities consisting of hollow metal boxes are used in microwave transmitters, receivers and test equipment to control frequency, in place of the tuned circuits which are used at lower frequencies
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Tansen
Tansen
Tansen
(c. 1506 – 1589), also referred to as Tan Sen or Mian Tansen, was a prominent figure of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music.[3] Born in a Hindu family, he learnt and perfected his art in the northwest region of modern Madhya Pradesh. He was given his name "Tansen" by hindu classical legend Swami Haridas
Swami Haridas
as he was mesmerised by the beauty in his voice. He began his career and spent most of his adult life in the court and patronage of the Hindu king of Rewa (princely state), Raja Ramchandra Singh (r.1555–1592), where Tansen's musical abilities and studies gained widespread fame.[3] This reputation brought him to the attention of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, who sent messengers to Raja Ramchandra Singh, requesting Tansen
Tansen
to join the musicians at the Mughal court
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Resonance Chamber
A resonance chamber uses resonance to enhance the transfer of energy from a sound source (e.g. a vibrating string) to the air. The chamber has interior surfaces which reflect an acoustic wave. When a wave enters the chamber, it bounces back and forth within the chamber with low loss (See standing wave)
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Bridge (instrument)
A bridge is a device that supports the strings on a stringed musical instrument and transmits the vibration of those strings to another structural component of the instrument—typically a soundboard, such as the top of a guitar or violin—which transfers the sound to the surrounding air. Depending on the instrument, the bridge may be made of carved wood (violin family instruments, acoustic guitars and some jazz guitars), metal (electric guitars such as the Fender Telecaster) or other materials
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Sitar, Iran
Iran (Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan,[a] to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq
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Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire
Empire
(Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت‬‎, translit. Mughliyah Saltanat)[8][2] or Mogul Empire[9] was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Hindi
Hindi
Hindi
(Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
(Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register[5] of the Hindustani language. Modern Hindi
Hindi
and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century.[6] Along with the English language, Hindi
Hindi
written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India.[7] On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India
India
adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script
Devanagari script
as the official language of the Republic of India
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Punjabi Language
Punjabi (/pʌnˈdʒɑːbi/;[6] Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ pañjābī; Shahmukhi: پنجابی‬ paṉjābī)[7] is an Indo-Aryan language
Indo-Aryan language
spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015)[8][9] in the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, who associate with the historical Punjab region
Punjab region
of India
India
and Pakistan. Among Indo-European languages, it is unusual due to the use of lexical tone.[10][11][12] Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan,[13] the 11th most widely spoken in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian Subcontinent. Punjabi is the fifth most-spoken native language (after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese) in Canada
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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Tambouras
The tambouras (Greek: ταμπουράς [tabuˈras]) is a Greek traditional string instrument of Byzantine origin.[1] It has existed since at least the 10th century, when it was known in Assyria
Assyria
and Egypt. At that time, it might have between two and six strings, but Arabs adopted it, and called it a Tanbur. The characteristic long neck and two strings, tuned 5 notes apart.[2] It also similar instrument Tambur
Tambur
in Turkish and each of them have same origin.[3]Contents1 History1.1 Origins 1.2 Name 1.3 Type2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References4.1 Notes 4.2 SourcesHistory[edit] Origins[edit] See also: Lute § History and evolution of the lute It is considered that the tambouras' ancestor is the ancient Greek pandouris, also known as pandoura, pandouros or pandourida (πανδουρίς, πανδούρα, πάνδουρος), from which the word is derived
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The Doors
The Doors
The Doors
were an American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles, with vocalist Jim Morrison, keyboardist Ray Manzarek, guitarist Robby Krieger, and John Densmore
John Densmore
on drums. The band got its name, at Morrison's suggestion[4] from the title of Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception,[5] which itself was a reference to a quote made by William Blake, "If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite."[6] They were unique and among the most controversial and influential rock acts of the 1960s, mostly because of Morrison's lyrics and charismatic but unpredictable stage persona. After Morrison's death in 1971, the remaining members continued as a trio until disbanding in 1973.[7][8] Signing with Elektra Records
Elektra Records
in 1966, the Doors released eight albums between 1967 and 1971
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Hornbostel–Sachs
Hornbostel–Sachs or Sachs–Hornbostel is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel
Erich Moritz von Hornbostel
and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914.[1] An English translation was published in the Galpin Society Journal in 1961. It is the most widely used system for classifying musical instruments by ethnomusicologists and organologists (people who study musical instruments). The system was updated in 2011 as part of the work of the Musical Instrument Museums Online (MIMO) Project.[2] Hornbostel and Sachs based their ideas on a system devised in the late 19th century by Victor-Charles Mahillon, the curator of musical instruments at Brussels Conservatory. Mahillon divided instruments into four broad categories according to the nature of the sound-producing material: an air column; string; membrane; and body of the instrument
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Musical Instrument Classification
Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used. The most commonly used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; however, other schemes have been devised.Contents1 Chinese classification 2 Western classification 3 Mahillon and Hornbostel-Sachs systems 4 André Schaeffner4.1 Elementary organology5 Range 6 Other classifications6.1 Indonesian instruments 6.2 West African instruments 6.3 Kurt Reinhard 6.4 Persia7 See also 8 ReferencesChinese classification[edit] The oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC.[citation needed] It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of
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