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Sitar
The SITAR (English: /ˈsɪtɑːr/ or /sɪˈtɑːr/ ; Hindi : सितार Urdu
Urdu
: ستار sitāra pronounced ) is a plucked stringed instrument used mainly in Hindustani music and Indian classical music . The instrument is believed to have been derived from the veena , an ancient Indian instrument, which was modified by a Mughal court musician to conform with the tastes of his Mughal patrons and named after a Persian instrument called the setar (meaning three strings). The sitar flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries and arrived at its present form in 18th-century India. It derives its distinctive timbre and resonance from sympathetic strings , bridge design, a long hollow neck and a gourd -shaped resonance chamber . In appearance, the sitar is similar to the tanpura , except that it has frets
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Plucked Stringed Instrument
PLUCKED STRING INSTRUMENTS are a subcategory of string instruments that are played by plucking the strings . Plucking is a way of pulling and releasing the string in such a way as to give it an impulse that causes the string to vibrate. Plucking can be done with either a finger or a plectrum . Most plucked string instruments belong to the lute family (such as guitar , bass guitar , mandolin , banjo , balalaika , sitar , pipa , etc.), which generally consist of a resonating body, and a neck ; the strings run along the neck and can be stopped at different pitches. The zither family (including the autoharp , kantele , gusli , kannel , kankles , kokles , koto , guqin , gu zheng and many others) does not have a neck, and the strings are stretched across the soundboard. In the harp family (including the lyre ), the strings are perpendicular to the soundboard and do not run across it
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Hindi Language
HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Hindī), or MODERN STANDARD HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: मानक हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register of the Hindustani language . Modern Hindi
Hindi
and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century. Along with the English language
English language
, Hindi
Hindi
written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India
India
. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India
India
adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India
India

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Melody
A MELODY ("singing, chanting"), also TUNE, VOICE, or LINE, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm , while more figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements such as tonal color . It may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment . A line or part need not be a foreground melody. Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs , and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms. Melodies may also be described by their melodic motion or the pitches or the intervals between pitches (predominantly conjunct or disjunct or with further restrictions), pitch range, tension and release, continuity and coherence, cadence , and shape. The true goal of music—its proper enterprise—is melody
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Tambouras
The TAMBOURAS (Greek : ταμπουράς ) is a Greek traditional string instrument of Byzantine origin. It has existed since at least the 10th century, when it was known in Assyria
Assyria
and Egypt
Egypt
. At that time, it might have between two and six strings, but Arabs adopted it, and called it a Tanbur . The characteristic long neck and two strings, tuned 5 notes apart. It also similar instrument Tambur in Turkish and each of them have same origin. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins * 1.2 Name * 1.3 Type * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Notes * 4.2 Sources HISTORYORIGINS See also: Lute § History and evolution of the lute It is considered that the tambouras' ancestor is the ancient Greek pandouris, also known as pandoura , pandouros or pandourida (πανδουρίς, πανδούρα, πάνδουρος), from which the word is derived
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Mughal Empire
The MUGHAL EMPIRE ( Urdu
Urdu
: مغلیہ سلطنت‎, translit. Mughliyah Salṭanat) or MOGUL EMPIRE, self-designated as GURKANI (Persian : گورکانیان‎‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim
Muslim
dynasty with Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
Chagatai origins from Central Asia
Central Asia
, along with Persian and Indian Rajput admixture through marriage alliances. The dynasty was Persianate in culture, with local influences visible in its traits and customs
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Bridge (instrument)
A BRIDGE is a device that supports the strings on a stringed musical instrument and transmits the vibration of those strings to some other structural component of the instrument—typically a soundboard , such as the top of a guitar or violin—which transfers the sound to the surrounding air. CONTENTS * 1 Explanation * 2 Positioning * 3 Construction * 4 Operation * 5 Electric guitar bridges * 5.1 Vibrato
Vibrato
bridges * 5.1.1 Non-Locking Tremolo/ Vibrato
Vibrato
systems * 5.1.2 Locking Tremolo/ Vibrato
Vibrato
systems * 5.2 Non-Tremolo/ Vibrato
Vibrato
bridges * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links EXPLANATIONMost stringed instruments produce their sound through the application of energy to the strings, which sets them into vibratory motion
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Tansen
TANSEN (c. 1500 – 1586), also referred to as TAN SEN or MIAN TANSEN, was a prominent figure of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music. Born in a Hindu family, he learnt and perfected his art in the northwest region of modern Madhya Pradesh . He began his career and spent most of his adult life in the court and patronage of the Hindu king of Rewa State, Ram Chand, where Tansen's musical abilities and studies gained widespread fame. This reputation brought him to the attention of the Mughal Emperor Akbar
Akbar
, who sent messengers to Ram Chand requesting Tansen
Tansen
to join the musicians at the Mughal court. Tansen
Tansen
did not want to go, Ram Chand encouraged him to gain wider audience, and sent him along with gifts to Akbar
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Persian Language
PERSIAN (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/ ), also known by its endonym FARSI (فارسی fārsi ( listen )), is one of the Western Iranian languages
Iranian languages
within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family . It is primarily spoken in Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958), and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
Iran
. It is written in the Persian alphabet , a modified variant of the Arabic script
Arabic script

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The Doors
THE DOORS were an American rock band formed in 1965 in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
, with vocalist Jim Morrison , keyboardist Ray Manzarek , guitarist Robby Krieger , and drummer John Densmore . The band got its name, at Morrison's suggestion from the title of Aldous Huxley
Aldous Huxley
's book The Doors of Perception , which itself was a reference to a quote made by William Blake
William Blake
, "If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite." They were unique and among the most controversial and influential rock acts of the 1960s, mostly because of Morrison's lyrics and charismatic but unpredictable stage persona. After Morrison's death in 1971 at age 27 , the remaining members continued as a trio until disbanding in 1973
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Resonance Chamber
A RESONANCE CHAMBER uses resonance to amplify sound . The chamber has interior surfaces which reflect an acoustic wave. When a wave enters the chamber, it bounces back and forth within the chamber with low loss (See standing wave ). As more wave energy enters the chamber, it combines with and reinforces the standing wave, increasing its intensity . Since the resonance chamber is an enclosed space that has an opening where the sound wave enters and exits after bouncing off of the internal walls producing resonance, commonly acoustic resonance as in many musical instruments (see Sound
Sound
board (music) ), the material of the chamber, particularly that of the actual internal walls, its shape and the position of the opening, as well as the finish (porosity) of the internal walls are contributing factors for the final resulting sound produced
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Sursingar
The SURSINGAR (IAST : sursiṅgār), SURSRINGAR or SURSHRINGAR (Sringara: Pleasure in Sanskrit), is a musical instrument from India having many similarities with the sarod. It is larger than the sarod and produces a deeper sound. It precedes the sarod chronologically. Its neck has a metal fingerboard and the steel and bronze strings are played with a metal pick, while the bridge is made of a flat horn. It has two resonant boxes; the main box is made from a cut gourd, on which a wooden cover is attached. CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 Noted performers * 3 External links * 4 References CONSTRUCTIONThe main body is made of wood and not leather (the material used in earlier instruments). The sound producing mechanism of the instrument is formed by a gourd. The gourd is attached to a hollow wooden handle. The handle is sometimes covered with a metal plate to facilitate the glissando . It has four main strings and four rhythmic drones (chikari)
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Urdu
Pakistan
Pakistan
(national and official) India
India
(official as per the 8th Schedule of the Constitution and in the following states/union territories) Official: *
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Pandura
The PANDURA ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: πανδοῦρα, pandoura) was an ancient Greek string instrument belonging in the broad class of the lute and guitar instruments. Musical instruments of this class have been observed in ancient Greek artwork from the 3rd or 4th century BC onward. Lutes have been present in ancient Greece since the 4th century BC. CONTENTS * 1 Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
* 2 Roman * 3 Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
* 4 Eastern variations * 4.1 Caucasus * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links ANCIENT GREECE Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Tanagra figurine, 200 BC The ancient Greek pandoura was a medium or long-necked lute with a small resonating chamber, used by the ancient Greeks. It commonly had three strings: such an instrument was also known as the trichordon (τρίχορδον, McKinnon 1984:10)
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Hornbostel–sachs
HORNBOSTEL–SACHS or SACHS–HORNBOSTEL is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs , and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. An English translation was published in the Galpin Society Journal in 1961. It is the most widely used system for classifying musical instruments by ethnomusicologists and organologists (people who study musical instruments). The system was updated in 2011 as part of the work of the Musical Instrument Museums Online (MIMO) Project. Hornbostel and Sachs based their ideas on a system devised in the late 19th century by Victor-Charles Mahillon , the curator of musical instruments at Brussels Conservatory . Mahillon divided instruments into four broad categories according to the nature of the sound-producing material: an air column; string; membrane; and body of the instrument
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Resonator
A RESONATOR is a device or system that exhibits resonance or resonant behavior, that is, it naturally oscillates at some frequencies , called its resonant frequencies , with greater amplitude than at others. The oscillations in a resonator can be either electromagnetic or mechanical (including acoustic ). Resonators are used to either generate waves of specific frequencies or to select specific frequencies from a signal. Musical instruments use acoustic resonators that produce sound waves of specific tones. Another example is quartz crystals used in electronic devices such as radio transmitters and quartz watches to produce oscillations of very precise frequency. A CAVITY RESONATOR is one in which waves exist in a hollow space inside the device. In electronics and radio, microwave cavities consisting of hollow metal boxes are used in microwave transmitters, receivers and test equipment to control frequency, in place of the tuned circuits which are used at lower frequencies
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