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Sin-itiro Tomonaga
Shin'ichirō Tomonaga[1] (朝永 振一郎, Tomonaga Shin'ichirō, March 31, 1906 – July 8, 1979), usually cited as Sin-Itiro Tomonaga in English,[2] was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics, work for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1965[3] along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger.Contents1 Biography 2 Recognition 3 Selected publications3.1 Books 3.2 Articles4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksBiography[edit] Tomonaga was born in Tokyo
Tokyo
in 1906. He was the second child and eldest son of a Japanese philosopher, Tomonaga Sanjūrō. He entered the Kyoto Imperial University in 1926. Hideki Yukawa, also a Nobel Prize winner, was one of his classmates during undergraduate school. During graduate school at the same university, he worked as an assistant in the university for three years
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Tokyo
Tokyo
Tokyo
(/ˈtoʊkioʊ/, Japanese: [toːkʲoː] ( listen)), officially Tokyo Metropolis,[6] is the capital city of Japan
Japan
and one of its 47 prefectures.[7] The Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area
is the most populous metropolitan area in the world.[8] It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan
Japan
and the Japanese government. Tokyo
Tokyo
is in the Kantō region
Kantō region
on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu
Honshu
and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands.[9] Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shōgun
Shōgun
Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters
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Renormalization
Renormalization
Renormalization
is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions. However, even if it were the case that no infinities arise in loop diagrams in quantum field theory, it can be shown that renormalization of mass and fields appearing in the original Lagrangian are necessary.[1] For example, a theory of the electron may begin by postulating a mass and charge. However, in quantum field theory this electron is surrounded by a cloud of possibilities of other virtual particles such as photons, which interact with the original electron. Taking these interactions into account shows that the electron-system in fact behaves as if it had a different mass and charge
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Werner Heisenberg
Werner Karl Heisenberg (/ˈhaɪzənˌbɜːrɡ/;[2] German: [ˈhaɪzənbɛɐ̯k]; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born
Max Born
and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. He is known for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which he published in 1927. Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
for 1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics".[3] He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Nuclear Physics
Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied.[1] Nuclear physics
Nuclear physics
should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons. Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology. Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering. Particle physics
Particle physics
evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are typically taught in close association
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Magnetron
The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators). Electrons
Electrons
pass by the openings to these cavities and cause radio waves to oscillate within, similar to the way a whistle produces a tone when excited by an air stream blown past its opening. The frequency of the microwaves produced, the resonant frequency, is determined by the cavities' physical dimensions. Unlike other vacuum tubes such as a klystron or a traveling-wave tube (TWT), the magnetron cannot function as an amplifier in order to increase the intensity of an applied microwave signal; the magnetron serves solely as an oscillator, generating a microwave signal from direct current electricity supplied to the vacuum tube. An early form of magnetron was invented by H
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Meson
−1  e, 0 e, +1 eSpin 0, 1In particle physics, mesons (/ˈmiːzɒnz/ or /ˈmɛzɒnz/) are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by strong interactions. Because mesons are composed of quark subparticles, they have physical size, notably a diameter of roughly one femtometer,[1] which is about 1.2 times the size of a proton or neutron. All mesons are unstable, with the longest-lived lasting for only a few hundredths of a microsecond. Charged mesons decay (sometimes through mediating particles) to form electrons and neutrinos. Uncharged mesons may decay to photons
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Wolfgang Pauli
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (/ˈpɔːli/;[5] German: [ˈpaʊli]; 25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian-born Swiss and American theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics. In 1945, after having been nominated by Albert Einstein,[6] Pauli received the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
for his "decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or Pauli principle". The discovery involved spin theory, which is the basis of a theory of the structure of matter.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early years 1.2 Scientific research 1.3 Personality and reputation 1.4 Personal life2 Bibliography 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksBiography[edit] Early years[edit] Pauli was born in Vienna
Vienna
to a chemist Wolfgang Joseph Pauli (né Wolf Pascheles, 1869–1955) and his wife Bertha Camilla Schütz; his sister was Hertha Pauli, the writer and actress
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Markus Fierz
Markus Eduard Fierz (20 June 1912 – 20 June 2006) was a Swiss physicist, particularly remembered for his formulation of spin-statistics theorem, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics, and statistical mechanics. He was awarded the Max Planck Medal in 1979 and the Albert Einstein Medal in 1989 for all his work. Fierz's father Hans Eduard Fierz was a chemist with Geigy and later a professor at Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zurich), his mother was Linda Fierz-David. Fierz studied at the Realgymnasium in Zurich. In 1931 he began his studies in Göttingen, where he listened to the lectures of such luminaries as Hermann Weyl. In 1933 he returned to Zurich and studied physics at ETH under Wolfgang Pauli and Gregor Wentzel
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Perturbation Theory (quantum Mechanics)
In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one. The idea is to start with a simple system for which a mathematical solution is known, and add an additional "perturbing" Hamiltonian representing a weak disturbance to the system. If the disturbance is not too large, the various physical quantities associated with the perturbed system (e.g. its energy levels and eigenstates) can be expressed as "corrections" to those of the simple system. These corrections, being small compared to the size of the quantities themselves, can be calculated using approximate methods such as asymptotic series. The complicated system can therefore be studied based on knowledge of the simpler one
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Robert Oppenheimer
Julius Robert Oppenheimer[note 1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Oppenheimer was the wartime head of the Los Alamos Laboratory
Los Alamos Laboratory
and is among those who are credited with being the "father of the atomic bomb" for their role in the Manhattan
Manhattan
Project, the World War II
World War II
undertaking that developed the first nuclear weapons used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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RIKEN
Riken
Riken
(理研) is a large research institute in Japan. Founded in 1917, it now has about 3,000 scientists on seven campuses across Japan, including the main site at Wakō, just outside Tokyo. Riken
Riken
is a Designated National Research and Development Institute[1] and was formerly an Independent Administrative Institution
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Princeton, New Jersey
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township. As of the 2010 United States Census, the municipality's population was 28,572, reflecting the former township's population of 16,265, along with the 12,307 in the former borough.[7][8][9][10][11] Princeton was founded before the American Revolution
American Revolution
and is best known as the home of Princeton University, located in the community since 1756
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Many-body Problem
The many-body problem is a general name for a vast category of physical problems pertaining to the properties of microscopic systems made of a large number of interacting particles. Microscopic here implies that quantum mechanics has to be used to provide an accurate description of the system. A large number can be anywhere from 3 to infinity (in the case of a practically infinite, homogeneous or periodic system, such as a crystal), although three- and four-body systems can be treated by specific means (respectively the Faddeev and Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations) and are thus sometimes separately classified as few-body systems. In such a quantum system, the repeated interactions between particles create quantum correlations, or entanglement. As a consequence, the wave function of the system is a complicated object holding a large amount of information, which usually makes exact or analytical calculations impractical or even impossible
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Richard P. Feynman
Richard Phillips Feynman (/ˈfaɪnmən/; May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger
Julian Schwinger
and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
in 1965. Feynman developed a widely used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions governing the behavior of subatomic particles, which later became known as Feynman diagrams. During his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world
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