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Shaba Invasions
MPLA
MPLA
victory by 1992.Creation, then collapse, of the People's Republic of Angola Withdrawal of all foreign forces in 1989. Transition towards a multiparty political system in 1991/92. Dissolution of the armed forces of the FNLA. Participation of UNITA
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Cold War
The Cold War
Cold War
was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
(the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc
Western Bloc
(the United States, its NATO allies and others). Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but a common timeframe is the period between 1947, the year the Truman Doctrine, a U.S. foreign policy pledging to aid nations threatened by Soviet expansionism, was announced, and either 1989, when communism fell in Eastern Europe, or 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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Demosthenes Amos Chilingutila
Brigadier Demosthenes Amos Chilingutila served as the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola (FALA), the armed wing of UNITA, from 1979 to January 1985 and again after October 1986.[1] Jonas Savimbi, the leader of UNITA, demoted Chilingutila for UNITA's military failures in the 1970s to Chief of Operations in 1985. Alberto Joaquim Vinama succeeded Chilingutila until his death in a car accident in October 1986. Chilingutila then regained his office.[1] References[edit]^ a b Kukkuk, Leon (2005). Letters to Gabriella. p. 160. This article about an Angolan politician is a stub
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Alberto Joaquim Vinama
Brigadier Alberto Joaquim Vinama (died October 10, 1986), also known as Chendovava, served as the Chief of Staff of the People's Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola, the armed wing of UNITA, from January 1985 until his death in October 1986. He replaced Demosthenes Amos Chilingutila, demoted to Chief of Operations, who regained his office upon Vinama's death.[1] References[edit]^ Kukkuk, Leon (2005). Letters to Gabriella
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Holden Roberto
Holden Álvaro Roberto (January 12, 1923 – August 2, 2007) founded and led the National Liberation Front of Angola
National Liberation Front of Angola
(FNLA) from 1962 to 1999. His memoirs are unfinished.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Political career 3 National Liberation Front of Angola 4 References 5 Further readingEarly life[edit] Roberto, son of Garcia Diasiwa Roberto and Joana Lala Nekaka (and a descendant of the monarchy of the Kongo Kingdom.[2]), was born in São Salvador, Angola. His family moved to Léopoldville, Belgian Congo
Belgian Congo
in 1925. In 1940 he graduated from a Baptist
Baptist
mission school. He worked for the Belgian Finance Ministry in Léopoldville, Bukavu, and Stanleyville for eight years
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Balthazar Johannes Vorster
Balthazar Johannes "B. J." Vorster (Afrikaans pronunciation: [ˈbaltɑːzar jʊəˈhanəs ˈfɔrstər]; 13 December 1915 – 10 September 1983), better known as John Vorster, served as the Prime Minister of South Africa
South Africa
from 1966 to 1978 and as the fourth State President of South Africa
South Africa
from 1978 to 1979. Vorster was known for his staunch adherence to apartheid, overseeing (as Minister of Justice) the Rivonia Trial
Rivonia Trial
in which Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
was sentenced to life imprisonment for sabotage, and (as Prime Minister) the Terrorism Act, the complete abolition of non-white political representation, the Soweto
Soweto
Riots and the Steve Biko
Steve Biko
crisis
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Pieter Willem Botha
Pieter Willem Botha, DMS ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
pronunciation: [ˈpitər ˈvələm ˈbʊəta]; 12 January 1916 – 31 October 2006), commonly known as "P. W." and Die Groot Krokodil ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "The Big Crocodile"), was the leader of South Africa
South Africa
from 1978 to 1989, serving as the last Prime Minister from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive State President from 1984 to 1989. First elected to Parliament in 1948, Botha was an outspoken opponent of majority rule and international communism. However, his administration did make concessions towards political reform, whereas internal unrest saw widespread human rights abuses at the hands of the government. Botha resigned the leadership of the ruling National Party in February 1989 after suffering a stroke and six months later was coerced to leave the presidency as well. In F. W
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Union Of South Africa
The Union of South Africa
South Africa
(Dutch: Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Afrikaans: Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of four previously separate British colonies: the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River colonies
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South African Border War
Military stalemate[22][23]Angolan Tripartite Accord, leading to:Withdrawal of South African forces from Namibia; withdrawal of Cuban forces from Angola Namibian general elections by direct universal suffrage SWAPO
SWAPO
government assuming power in NamibiaTerritorial changes South West Africa
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Portuguese Language
Argentina
Argentina
(South America) Indonesia
Indonesia
(Asia)[4][5] Senegal
Senegal
(Africa) South Africa
Africa
(Africa) Namibia
Namibia
(Africa) Uruguay
Uruguay
(South America)[6][7][8]Numerous international organisationsRegulated by International Portuguese Language Institute Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazil) Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras (Portugal) Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa (Galicia) CPLPLanguage codesISO 639-1 ptISO 639-2 porISO 639-3 porGlottolog port1283[9]Linguasphere 51-AAA-a  Native language   Official and administrative language   Cultural or secondary language   Portuguese speaking minorities   Portuguese-based creole languagesThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Civil War
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology,[1] is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies.[2] The term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile which was used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and large-scale. Civil wars may result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources.[3] Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M
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MPLA
The People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola, for some years called the People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola
Angola
– Labour Party (Portuguese: Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola
Angola
– Partido do Trabalho), is a political party that has ruled Angola
Angola
since the country's independence from Portugal
Portugal
in 1975
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Sam Nujoma
Samuel Shafiishuna Daniel "Sam" Nujoma,[1] (/nuːˈjoʊmə/; born 12 May 1929) is a Namibian revolutionary, anti-apartheid activist and politician who served three terms as the first President of Namibia, from 1990 to 2005. Nujoma was a founding member and the first president of the South West Africa
South West Africa
People's Organization (SWAPO) in 1960. He played an important role as leader of the national liberation movement in campaigning for Namibia's independence from South African rule. He established the People's Liberation Army of Namibia
Namibia
(PLAN) in 1962 and launched a guerrilla war against the apartheid government of South Africa in 1966, beginning after the United Nations
United Nations
withdrew the mandate for South Africa to govern the territory
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Proxy War
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.[1] In order for a conflict to be considered a proxy war, there must be a direct, long-term relationship between external actors and the belligerents involved.[2] The aforementioned relationship usually takes the form of funding, military training, arms, or other forms of material assistance which assist a belligerent party in sustaining its war effort.[2] During classical antiquity and the Middle Ages, many non-state proxies were external parties which were introduced to an internal conflict and aligned themselves with a belligerent in order to gain influence and further their own interests in the region.[3][4] Proxies could be introduced by an external or local power and most commonly took the form of irregular armies which were used to achieve their sponsor's goals in a contested region.[4] Some medieval
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Cabinda (province)
Cabinda (also spelled Kabinda, formerly called Portuguese Congo, known locally as Tchiowa)[citation needed] is an exclave and province of Angola, a status that has been disputed by several political organizations in the territory. The capital city is also called Cabinda. The province is divided into four municipalities—Belize, Buco-Zau, Cabinda and Cacongo. Modern Cabinda is the result of a fusion of three kingdoms: N'Goyo, Loango and Kakongo
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