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Sea
A SEA is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land . More broadly, "THE SEA" is the interconnected system of Earth
Earth
's salty , oceanic waters—considered as one global ocean or as several principal oceanic divisions. The sea moderates Earth\'s climate and has important roles in the water cycle , carbon cycle , and nitrogen cycle . Although the sea has been traveled and explored since prehistory , the modern scientific study of the sea—oceanography —dates broadly to the British Challenger expedition of the 1870s
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Entrepôt
An ENTREPôT (English: /ˈɑːntrəpoʊ/ French: ) or TRANSSHIPMENT PORT is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported , stored or traded, usually to be exported again. These commercial cities spawned due to the growth of long-distance trade. Such centers played a critical role in trade during the days of wind-powered shipping . In modern times customs areas have largely made such entrepôts obsolete, but the term is still used to refer to duty-free ports with a high volume of re-export trade. This type of port should not be confused with the modern French usage of the word entrepôt, meaning warehouse
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International Hydrographic Organization
The INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC ORGANIZATION (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography . A principal aim of the IHO is to ensure that the world’s seas, oceans and navigable waters are properly surveyed and charted. It does this through the setting of international standards , the co-ordination of the endeavours of the world's national hydrographic offices , and through its capacity building programme. The IHO enjoys observer status at the United Nations
United Nations
where it is the recognised competent authority on hydrographic surveying and nautical charting . When referring to hydrography and nautical charting in Conventions and similar Instruments, it is the IHO standards and specifications that are normally used
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole
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Gulf Of Santa Catalina
Coordinates : 33°00′N 118°00′W / 33.000°N 118.000°W / 33.000; -118.000 The Gulf of Santa Catalina
Gulf of Santa Catalina
in Laguna Beach on sunset The GULF OF SANTA CATALINA, also the GULF OF CATALINA, is a gulf in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
on the west coast of North America
North America
. The eastern coast of the gulf belongs to the states of California
California
, United States , and Baja California
California
, Mexico
Mexico
. The biggest town on the shore of the gulf is San Diego
San Diego
. The islands in the gulf include Santa Catalina Island . The gulf is located in a seismically active area
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Earth's Rotation
EARTH\'S ROTATION is the rotation of Planet Earth
Earth
around its own axis . Earth
Earth
rotates eastward , in prograde motion . As viewed from the north pole star Polaris
Polaris
, Earth
Earth
turns counterclockwise . The North Pole , also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere where Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. This point is distinct from Earth's North Magnetic Pole . The South Pole is the other point where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface, in Antarctica
Antarctica
. Earth
Earth
rotates once in about 24 hours with respect to the sun and once every 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds with respect to the stars (see below )
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Prehistory
PREHISTORY is the period of human activity between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago and the invention of writing systems, the earliest of which appeared c. 5,300 years ago. Sumer
Sumer
in Mesopotamia , the Indus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisation
and ancient Egypt
Egypt
were the first civilisations to develop their own scripts, and to keep historical records; this took place already during the early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
. Neighbouring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron
Iron
Age
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Land
LAND, sometimes referred to as DRY LAND, is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water . The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture , habitat , and various natural resources . Some life forms (including terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals ) have developed from predecessor species that lived in bodies of water . Areas where land meets large bodies of water are called coastal zones . The division between land and water is a fundamental concept to humans. The demarcation between land and water can vary by local jurisdiction and other factors. A maritime boundary is one example of a political demarcation. A variety of natural boundaries exist to help clearly define where water meets land
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Gravity
GRAVITY, or GRAVITATION, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including planets , stars and galaxies . Since energy and mass are equivalent , all forms of energy , including light , also cause gravitation and are under the influence of it. On Earth
Earth
, gravity gives weight to physical objects and causes the ocean tides . The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe
Universe
caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large scale structures in the Universe. Gravity
Gravity
has an infinite range, although its effects become increasingly weaker on farther objects
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Climatology
Atmospheric physics Atmospheric dynamics (category) Atmospheric chemistry (category) METEOROLOGY Weather
Weather
(category) · (portal) Tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclone
(category) CLIMATOLOGY Climate
Climate
(category) Climate
Climate
change (category) Global warming
Global warming
(category) · (portal) * v * t * e CLIMATOLOGY (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or CLIMATE SCIENCE is the study of climate , scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography , which is one of the Earth sciences . Climatology
Climatology
now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry
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Southern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″S 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°S 0.00000°E / -90.00000; 0.00000 A photo of Earth
Earth
from Apollo 17 (Blue Marble ) originally had the south pole at the top; however, it was turned upside-down to fit the traditional perspective The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
highlighted in yellow ( Antarctica
Antarctica
not depicted) The Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
from above the South Pole The SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half sphere of Earth
Earth
which is south of the equator
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Continental Drift
CONTINENTAL DRIFT is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed. The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius
Abraham Ortelius
in 1596. The concept was independently and more fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, but his theory was rejected by some for lack of a mechanism (though this was supplied later by Arthur Holmes ). The idea of continental drift has been subsumed by the theory of plate tectonics , which explains how the continents move
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Hadal Zone
The HADAL ZONE (named after the realm of Hades
Hades
, the underworld in Greek mythology), also known as the HADOPELAGIC ZONE and composed of TRENCH ZONES, is the delineation for the deepest trenches in the ocean . The hadal zone is found from a depth to the bottom of the ocean of around 6,000 to 11,000 metres (20,000 to 36,000 ft) and exists in long but narrow topographic V-shaped depressions. "In total there are 33 trenches (27 subduction trenches and 6 trench faults) and 13 troughs around the world—46 individual hadal habitats in total." All the trenches together occupy an area less than one-quarter of one percent of the entire seafloor, with 84% of the hadal habitat found in the Pacific Ocean
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Sun
The SUN is the star at the center of the Solar System
Solar System
. It is a nearly perfect sphere of hot plasma , with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process . It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth
Earth
. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99.86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Sun's mass consists of hydrogen (~73%); the rest is mostly helium (~25%), with much smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen , carbon , neon , and iron . The Sun
Sun
is a G-type main-sequence star (G2V) based on its spectral class . As such, it is informally referred to as a yellow dwarf
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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth
Earth
, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter
Jupiter
's satellite Io , the Moon
Moon
is the second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
Earth
. The most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon
Moon
formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth
Earth
and a Mars
Mars
-sized body called Theia
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Challenger Expedition
The CHALLENGER EXPEDITION of 1872–76 was a scientific exercise that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography . The expedition was named after the mother vessel, HMS Challenger . Prompted by Charles Wyville Thomson —of the University of Edinburgh and Merchiston Castle School
Merchiston Castle School
—the Royal Society of London
Royal Society of London
obtained the use of Challenger from the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and in 1872 modified the ship for scientific work , equipping her with separate laboratories for natural history and chemistry . The expedition, led by Captain George Nares
George Nares
, sailed from Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, England, on 21 December 1872. Other naval officers included Commander John Maclear
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