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Russian Mafia
Russian organized crime or Russian mafia (Russian: рoссийская мафия, translit. rossiyskaya mafiya,[1] Russian: русская мафия, translit. russkaya mafiya), sometimes referred to as Bratva (Russian: братва: "brotherhood"), is a collective of various organized crime elements originating in the former Soviet Union. The acronym OPG is Organized Criminal (=Prestupnaya in Russian) Group, used to refer to any of the Russian mafia groups, sometimes modified with a specific name, e.g. Orekhovskaya OPG
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Black Market
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules. If the rule defines the set of goods and services whose production and distribution is prohibited by law, non-compliance with the rule constitutes a black market trade since the transaction itself is illegal. Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy
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Romanization Of Russian
Romanization
Romanization
of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script
Cyrillic script
into the Latin script. As well as its primary use for citing Russian names and words in languages which use a Latin alphabet, romanization is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing rapidly using a native Russian keyboard layout (JCUKEN)
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Collective
A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common objective.[citation needed] Collectives can differ from cooperatives in that they are not necessarily focused upon an economic benefit or saving, but can be that as well. The term "collective" is sometimes used to describe a species as a whole—for example, the human collective. For political purposes, a collective is defined by decentralized, or "majority-rules" decision making styles.Contents1 Types of groups 2 See also 3 References 4 Further readingTypes of groups[edit] Collectives are sometimes characterised by attempts to share and exercise political and social power and to make decisions on a consensus-driven and egalitarian basis. A commune or intentional community, which may also be known as a "collective household", is a group of people who live together in some kind of dwelling or residence, or in some other arran
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Tsar
Tsar
Tsar
(/zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/) (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь [usually written thus with a title] or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism
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Gulag
The Gulag
Gulag
(Russian: ГУЛАГ, IPA: [ɡʊˈlak] ( listen); acronym of Glavnoye Upravleniye Lagerej, Main Camps' Administration or Chief Administration of [Corrective Labor] Camps) was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin[1][2] and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s. The term is also commonly used in English language to refer to any forced-labor camp in the Soviet Union, including camps that existed in post- Stalin
Stalin
times.[3][4] The camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners. Large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD
NKVD
troikas and other instruments of extrajudicial punishment
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Honor Code
An academic honor code or honor system is a set of rules or ethical principles governing an academic community based on ideals that define what constitutes honorable behaviour within that community. The use of an honor code depends on the notion that people (at least within the community) can be trusted to act honorably. Those who are in violation of the honor code can be subject to various sanctions, including expulsion from the institution. Honor codes are used to deter academic dishonesty and should be taken seriously at all times.Contents1 History 2 US military service academies 3 Notable American academic honor systems 4 Sample honor pledges 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] The documented history of an academic honor code dates back to 1736 at The College of William and Mary[1] and is the oldest honor code in the United States
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[note 1] (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. Governing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1952 and as Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1941 to 1953. Initially heading a collective one-party state government, by 1937 he was the country's de facto dictator. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism– Leninism
Leninism
while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Raised into a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire, as a youth Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
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Dissolution Of The Soviet Union
The dissolution of the Soviet Union[a] occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union. It was a result of the declaration number 142-Н of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.[1] The declaration acknowledged the independence of the former Soviet republics and created the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS), although five of the signatories ratified it much later or did not do so at all. On the previous day, 25 December 1991, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, resigned, declared his office extinct, and handed over its powers – including control of the Soviet nuclear missile launching codes – to Russian President Boris Yeltsin
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Louis Freeh
Louis Joseph Freeh (born January 6, 1950) is an American attorney and former judge who served as the fifth Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from September 1993 to June 2001. Freeh began his career as a special agent in the FBI, and was later an Assistant United States Attorney and United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York
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Republics Of The Soviet Union
1. Armenia 2. Azerbaijan 3. Byelorussia 4. Estonia[a] 5. Georgia 6. Kazakhstan 7. Kirghizia 8. Latvia[a] 9. Lithuania[a] 10. Moldavia 11. Russian SFSR 12. Tajikistan 13. Turkmenia 14. Ukraine 15. UzbekistanCategory Federated stateLocation Soviet UnionCreated by Treaty on the Creation of the USSRCreated 30 December 1922Abolished by State Council recognition of the Baltic states
Baltic states
independence Declaration no. 142-НAbolished 6 September 1991 26 December 1991Number 15 (as of 1989)Possible status The Baltic republics were de jure not recognized by several countries.Populations 1,565,662 (Estonia) – 147,386,000 (Russian SFSR)Areas 29,800 km2 (11,500 sq mi) (Armenia) – 17,075,400 km2 (6,592,800 sq mi) (Russian SFSR)Government Unitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republicsSubdivisions Autonomous SSRs, oblasts, Autonomous oblasts,"Soviet socialist republic" redirects here
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FBI
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
Bureau of Investigation
(FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to/ both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence.[3] A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.[4][5] Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5
MI5
and the Russian FSB
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National Security Of The United States
National security of the United States is a collective term encompassing the policies of both U.S. national defense and foreign relations.[1]Contents1 Elements of U.S. national security policy 2 U.S. national security and the Constitution 3 Organization of U.S. national security 4 National security and civil liberties 5 National security reports 6 See also 7 ReferencesElements of U.S. national security policy[edit] Measures taken to ensure U.S
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Interpol
The International Criminal Police Organization (French: Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation. It was established as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) in 1923; it chose INTERPOL as its telegraphic address in 1946, and made it its common name in 1956.[4] INTERPOL has an annual budget of around €113 million, most of which is provided through annual contributions by its membership of police forces in 192 countries (as of 2017). In 2013, the INTERPOL General Secretariat employed a staff of 756, representing 100 member countries.[1] Its current Secretary-General is Jürgen Stock, the former deputy head of Germany's Federal Criminal Police Office
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