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Romaniote Jews
The Romaniote Jews
Jews
or Romaniots (Greek: Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; Hebrew: רומניוטים‬, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in Greece
Greece
and neighboring Eastern Mediterranean countries for more than 2,000 years, being the oldest Jewish community in the Eurasian continent. Their distinct language was Judaeo-Greek, a Greek dialect, and is today modern Greek or the languages of their new home countries. They derived their name from the old name for the people of the Byzantine Empire, Romaioi. Large communities were located in Thebes, Ioannina, Chalcis, Corfu, Arta, Preveza, Volos, Patras, Corinth, and on the islands of Zakynthos, Lesbos, Chios, Samos, Rhodes, and Cyprus, among others
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Volos
Volos
Volos
(Greek: Βόλος) is a coastal port city in Thessaly
Thessaly
situated midway on the Greek mainland, about 330 kilometres (205 miles) north of Athens
Athens
and 220 kilometres (137 miles) south of Thessaloniki. It is the capital of the Magnesia regional unit. Volos
Volos
is the only outlet to the sea from Thessaly, the country's largest agricultural region. With a population of 144,449 (2011), it is an important industrial centre, while its port provides a bridge between Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Volos
Volos
is the newest of the Greek port cities, with a large proportion of modern buildings erected following the catastrophic earthquakes of 1955. It includes the municipal units of Volos, Nea Ionia
Ionia
and Iolkos, as well as smaller suburban communities. The economy of the city is based on manufacturing, trade, services and tourism
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Alhambra Decree
The Alhambra Decree
Alhambra Decree
(also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs
Catholic Monarchs
of Spain
Spain
(Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews
Jews
from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.[1] The primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain's large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spain's Jews
Jews
had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391.[2] Due to continuing attacks around 50,000 more had converted by 1415.[3] A further number of those remaining chose to convert to avoid expulsion
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Moshe Pesach
Moshe Pesach
Moshe Pesach
(Greek: Μωυσής Πεσάχ or Πέσαχ; Larissa, 1869 – Volos, 13 November 1955) was the rabbi of Volos
Volos
in Greece from 1892 until his death, and chief rabbi of Greece
Greece
from 1946. Through his efforts, and with the assistance of the Greek authorities, the majority of the city's Jewish community was saved during the Holocaust. Life[edit] Moshe Pesach
Moshe Pesach
was born in Larissa
Larissa
in 1869, and studied Jewish literature and philosophy at Thessaloniki. From 1892 he was active in the Jewish community of Volos
Volos
as a rabbi.[1][2] In the early 20th century, the city of Volos
Volos
had a vibrant Jewish community: from ca. 500 in 1896, it rose to ca
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Patras
Patras
Patras
(Greek: Πάτρα Greek: [ˈpatra], Classical Greek
Classical Greek
and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.), Greek pronunciation: [pátrai̯], Latin: Patrae (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, 215 km (134 mi) west of Athens. The city is built at the foothills of Mount Panachaikon, overlooking the Gulf of Patras. Patras
Patras
has a population of 213,984 (in 2011).[1] The core settlement has a history spanning four millennia; in the Roman period it had become a cosmopolitan center of the eastern Mediterranean whilst, according to Christian tradition, it was also the place of Saint Andrew's martyrdom
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Corinth, Greece
Corinth
Corinth
(/ˈkɒrɪnθ/; Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos, pronounced [ˈkorinθos] ( listen)) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece
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Zakynthos
Zakynthos
Zakynthos
(Greek: Ζάκυνθος, Zákynthos [ˈzacinθos] ( listen), Italian: Zacìnto) or Zante (Greek: Τζάντε, Tzánte /ˈzɑːnti, -teɪ, ˈzæn-/, Italian: Zante; from Venetian), is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the third largest of the Ionian Islands. Zakynthos
Zakynthos
is a separate regional unit of the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
region, and its only municipality. It covers an area of 405.55 km2 (156.6 sq mi)[1] and its coastline is roughly 123 km (76 mi) in length. The name, like all similar names ending in -nthos, is pre-Mycenaean or Pelasgian
Pelasgian
in origin
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Lesbos
Lesbos
Lesbos
(/ˈlɛzbɒs/, US: /ˈlɛzboʊs/; Greek: Λέσβος Lesvos, pronounced [ˈlezvos]), sometimes referred to as Mytilene
Mytilene
after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. It has an area of 1,633 km2 (631 sq mi)[1] with 320 kilometres (199 miles) of coastline, making it the third largest island in Greece. It is separated from Turkey
Turkey
by the narrow Mytilini Strait and in late Palaeolithic/Mesolithic times[2] was joined to the Anatolian mainland before the end of the last glacial period. Lesbos
Lesbos
is also the name of a regional unit of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region, within which Lesbos
Lesbos
island is one of five governing islands. The others are Chios, Ikaria, Lemnos, and Samos
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Chios
Chios
Chios
(/ˈkaɪ.ɒs/; Greek: Χίος, translit. Híos; Ancient Greek: Χίος, translit. Khíos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey
Turkey
by the Chios
Chios
Strait. Chios
Chios
is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios
Chios
regional unit, which is part of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region
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Samos
Samos
Samos
(/ˈseɪmɒs, ˈsæmoʊs/; Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos
Patmos
and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre (1.0 mi)-wide Mycale
Mycale
Strait. It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. In ancient times Samos
Samos
was an especially rich and powerful city-state, particularly known for its vineyards and wine production.[1] It is home to Pythagoreion
Pythagoreion
and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering
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Rhodes
Rhodes
Rhodes
(Greek: Ρόδος, Ródos [ˈroðos]) is the largest of the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
islands of Greece
Greece
in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes
Rhodes
regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean
South Aegean
administrative region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes.[1] The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011
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Holocaust
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah,[b] was a genocide during World War II
World War II
in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.[c] Jews
Jews
were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, and "incurably sick",[6] as well as political opponents, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Soviet prisoners of war.[7] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews
Jews
from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
in 1935
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Corfu
Corfu
Corfu
or Kerkyra (/kɔːrˈfuː, -fjuː/; Greek: Κέρκυρα, translit. Kérkyra, [ˈcercira]; Ancient Greek: Κόρκυρα, translit. Kórkyra; Latin: Corcyra; Italian: Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea. It is the second largest of the Ionian Islands,[3] and, including its small satellite islands, forms the northwesternmost part of Greece.[4] The island is part of the Corfu regional unit, and is administered as a single municipality, which also includes the smaller islands of Ereikoussa, Mathraki
Mathraki
and Othonoi. The municipality has an area of 610,9 km2, the island proper 592,8 km2.[5] The principal city of the island and seat of the municipality (pop. 32,095) is also named Corfu.[6] Corfu
Corfu
is home to the Ionian University. The island is bound up with the history of Greece
Greece
from the beginnings of Greek mythology
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Axis Powers
The Axis powers
Axis powers
(German: Achsenmächte, Italian: Potenze dell'Asse, Japanese: 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces. The Axis powers
Axis powers
agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity. The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy, and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936
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Axis Occupation Of Greece During World War II
The occupation of Greece
Greece
by the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
(Greek: Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece
Greece
to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Greece
Greece
since October 1940. Following the conquest of Crete, all of Greece
Greece
was occupied by June 1941. The occupation in the mainland lasted until Germany and its ally Bulgaria
Bulgaria
were forced to withdraw under Allied pressure in early October 1944
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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