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Prusik
A PRUSIK /ˈprʌsɪk/ (PRUH-sik ) is a friction hitch or knot used to attach a loop of cord around a rope, applied in climbing , canyoneering , mountaineering , caving , rope rescue , and by arborists . The term Prusik
Prusik
is a name for both the loops of cord and the hitch, and the verb is "to prusik". More casually, the term is used for any friction hitch or device that can grab a rope. The word is often misspelled as Prussik, Prussick or Prussic, as it is a homophone with the term prussic acid . The Prusik
Prusik
hitch is named after its putative inventor, Austrian mountaineer Karl Prusik . It was shown in a 1931 Austrian mountaineering manual for rope ascending. It was used on several mountaineering routes of the era to ascend the final summit , where a rope could be thrown over the top and anchored so that climbers could attain the summit by prusiking up the other side of the rope
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UHMWPE
ULTRA-HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE (UHMWPE, UHMW) is a subset of the thermoplastic polyethylene . Also known as HIGH-MODULUS POLYETHYLENE, (HMPE), or HIGH-PERFORMANCE POLYETHYLENE (HPPE), it has extremely long chains, with a molecular mass usually between 3.5 and 7.5 million amu . The longer chain serves to transfer load more effectively to the polymer backbone by strengthening intermolecular interactions. This results in a very tough material, with the highest impact strength of any thermoplastic presently made. UHMWPE is odorless, tasteless, and nontoxic. It embodies all the characteristics of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with the added traits of being resistant to concentrated acids and alkalis as well as numerous organic solvents
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Summit
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peck with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point end route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain
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Prussic Acid
HYDROGEN CYANIDE (HCN), sometimes called PRUSSIC ACID, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN. It is a colorless , extremely poisonous and flammable liquid that boils slightly above room temperature , at 25.6 °C (78.1 °F). HCN is produced on an industrial scale and is a highly valuable precursor to many chemical compounds ranging from polymers to pharmaceuticals. CONTENTS * 1 Structure and general properties * 2 History of discovery * 3 Production and synthesis * 3.1 Historical methods of production * 4 Applications * 5 Occurrence * 5.1 HCN on the young Earth * 5.2 HCN in mammals * 5.3 HCN and the origin of life * 5.4 HCN in space * 6 As a poison and chemical weapon * 7 References * 8 External links STRUCTURE AND GENERAL PROPERTIES Hydrogen
Hydrogen
cyanide is a linear molecule, with a triple bond between carbon and nitrogen. A minor tautomer of HCN is HNC, hydrogen isocyanide
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Homophone
A HOMOPHONE is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning. A homophone may also differ in spelling. The two words may be spelled the same, such as rose (flower) and rose (past tense of "rise"), or differently, such as carat , caret , and carrot , or to, two, and too. The term "homophone" may also apply to units longer or shorter than words, such as phrases, letters, or groups of letters which are pronounced the same as another phrase, letter, or group of letters. Homophones that are spelled the same are also both homographs and homonyms . Homophones that are spelled differently are also called HETEROGRAPHS. A word or unit with this property is said to be "homophonous"
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Swiftwater Rescue
SWIFT WATER RESCUE (also called "white water rescue") is a subset of technical rescue dealing in white water river conditions. Due to the added pressure of moving water, swift water rescue involves the use of specially trained personnel, ropes and mechanical advantage systems that are often much more robust than those used in standard rope rescue . The main goal is to use or deflect the water’s power to assist in the rescue of the endangered person(s), as in most situations there is no easy way to overcome the power of the water. CONTENTS* 1 Rescue operations * 1.1 Zones of operation * 1.2 Risk algorithm * 1.3 Laminar flow * 1.4 Live bait rescue * 2 NFPA standards * 2.1 Specialized ratings * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links RESCUE OPERATIONSAs a swift water rescue scene evolves, the Incident Command System (ICS) will emerge. ICS is a national protocol used for managing emergencies in the United States
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RepRap
The REPRAP PROJECT started in England
England
in 2005 as a University of Bath initiative to develop a low-cost 3D printer that can print most of its own components, but it is now made up of hundreds of collaborators world wide. RepRap is short for replicating rapid prototyper. As an open design , all of the designs produced by the project are released under a free software license , the GNU General Public License . Due to the ability of the machine to make some of its own parts, authors envisioned the possibility of cheap RepRap units, enabling the manufacture of complex products without the need for extensive industrial infrastructure. They intended for the RepRap to demonstrate evolution in this process as well as for it to increase in number exponentially. A preliminary study claimed that using RepRaps to print common products results in economic savings
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Aid Climbing
AID CLIMBING is a style of climbing in which standing on or pulling oneself up via devices attached to fixed or placed protection is used to make upward progress. The term contrasts with free climbing in which progress is made without using artificial aids: a free climber ascends by only holding onto and stepping on natural features of the rock, using rope and equipment merely to catch them in case of fall and provide belay . In general, aid techniques are reserved for pitches where free climbing is difficult to impossible, and extremely steep and long routes demanding great endurance and both physical and mental stamina. While aid climbing places less emphasis on athletic fitness and raw strength than free climbing, the physical demands of hard aid climbing should not be underestimated
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Extrusion
EXTRUSION is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed through a die of the desired cross-section. The two main advantages of this process over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections, and to work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms parts with an excellent surface finish. Drawing is a similar process, which uses the tensile strength of the material to pull it through the die. This limits the amount of change which can be performed in one step, so it is limited to simpler shapes, and multiple stages are usually needed. Drawing is the main way to produce wire . Metal
Metal
bars and tubes are also often drawn. Extrusion
Extrusion
may be continuous (theoretically producing indefinitely long material) or semi-continuous (producing many pieces)
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Arborist
An ARBORIST, or (less commonly) ARBORICULTURIST, is a professional in the practice of arboriculture , which is the cultivation , management, and study of individual trees , shrubs , vines , and other perennial woody plants in dendrology and horticulture . Arborists generally focus on the health and safety of individual plants and trees, rather than managing forests (the domains of forestry and silviculture ) or harvesting wood. An arborist's scope of work is therefore distinct from that of either a forester or a logger , though the professions share much in common
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Highlining
SLACKLINING refers to the act of walking or balancing along a suspended length of flat webbing that is tensioned between two anchors . Slacklining
Slacklining
is similar to slack rope walking and tightrope walking . Slacklines differ from tightwires and tightropes in the type of material used and the amount of tension applied during use. Slacklines are tensioned significantly less than tightropes or tightwires in order to create a dynamic line which will stretch and bounce like a long and narrow trampoline . Tension can be adjusted to suit the user, and different webbing may be used in various circumstances. Slacklining
Slacklining
is popular because of its simplicity and versatility; it can be used in various environments with few components
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Climbing
CLIMBING is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done recreationally, competitively, in trades that rely on it, and in emergency rescue and military operations. It is done indoors and out, on natural and manmade structures. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links TYPES Climbing
Climbing
activities include: * Bouldering : Ascending boulders or small outcrops, often with climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Usually, instead of using a safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a human spotter (to direct a falling climber on to the pad
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Mountaineering
The term MOUNTAINEERING describes the sport of mountain climbing . While some scholars identify mountaineering-related activities as climbing (rock and ice) and trekking up mountains, others are also adding backpacking, hiking, skiing, via ferrata and wilderness activities, and still others state that mountaineering activities also include indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering. However most of the scholars, the term mountaineering understand as a climbing (which now refers to adventure climbing or sports climbing) and trekking (hill walking in 'exotic' places). Hiking
Hiking
in the mountains can also be a simple form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling , or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing , as well as crossing glaciers
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Canyoneering
CANYONING (CANYONEERING in the U.S. / KLOOFING in South-Africa / TORRENTISMO in Italian, BARRANQUISMO in Spanish) is travelling in canyons using a variety of techniques that may include other outdoor activities such as walking , scrambling , climbing , jumping , abseiling (rappelling ), and swimming . Although hiking down a canyon that is non-technical, (canyon hiking) is often referred to as canyoneering, the terms canyoning and canyoneering are more often associated with technical descents — those that require abseils (rappels) and ropework, technical climbing or down-climbing, technical jumps, and/or technical swims. Canyoning is frequently done in remote and rugged settings and often requires navigational , route-finding and other wilderness travel skills. Canyons that are ideal for canyoning are often cut into the bedrock stone, forming narrow gorges with numerous drops, beautifully sculpted walls, and sometimes spectacular waterfalls
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