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Progesterone
PROGESTERONE is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle , pregnancy , and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It belongs to a group of steroid hormones called the progestogens , and is the major progestogen in the body. Progesterone is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production of other endogenous steroids , including the sex hormones and the corticosteroids , and plays an important role in brain function as a neurosteroid
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Pharmacokinetics
PHARMACOKINETICS (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics ), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism. The substances of interest include any chemical xenobiotic such as: pharmaceutical drugs , pesticides , food additives , cosmetics , etc. It attempts to analyze chemical metabolism and to discover the fate of a chemical from the moment that it is administered up to the point at which it is completely eliminated from the body . Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
is the study of how an organism affects a drug, whereas pharmacodynamics (PD) is the study of how the drug affects the organism. Both together influence dosing , benefit, and adverse effects , as seen in PK/PD models
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Bioavailability
In pharmacology , BIOAVAILABILITY (BA) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation , one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs . By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously , its bioavailability is 100%. However, when a medication is administered via other routes (such as orally), its bioavailability generallyTH decreases (due to incomplete absorption and first-pass metabolism ) or may vary from patient to patient. Bioavailability
Bioavailability
is one of the essential tools in pharmacokinetics, as bioavailability must be considered when calculating dosages for non-intravenous routes of administration. For dietary supplements , herbs and other nutrients in which the route of administration is nearly always oral, bioavailability generally designates simply the quantity or fraction of the ingested dose that is absorbed
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Plasma Protein Binding
A drug's efficiency may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma . The less bound a drug is, the more efficiently it can traverse cell membranes or diffuse. Common blood proteins that drugs bind to are human serum albumin , lipoprotein , glycoprotein , and α, β‚ and γ globulins . CONTENTS * 1 Binding * 2 Impact of the altered protein binding * 2.1 Drug interactions * 3 Plasma protein binding prediction software * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links BINDINGA drug in blood exists in two forms: bound and unbound. Depending on a specific drug's affinity for plasma protein, a proportion of the drug may become bound to plasma proteins, with the remainder being unbound
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Subcutaneous Injection
A SUBCUTANEOUS INJECTION is administered as a bolus into the subcutis , the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis , collectively referred to as the cutis . Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering vaccines and medications such as insulin , morphine , diacetylmorphine and goserelin . Subcutaneous, as opposed to intravenous, injection of recreational drugs is referred to as "skin popping ". Subcutaneous administration may be abbreviated as SC, SQ, SUB-CU, SUB-Q, SUBQ, or SUBCUT. SUBCUT is the preferred abbreviation for patient safety. Subcutaneous tissue has few blood vessels and so drugs injected here are for slow, sustained rates of absorption. It is slower than intramuscular injections but still faster than intradermal injections
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Intramuscular Injection
INTRAMUSCULAR (ALSO IM OR IM) INJECTION is the injection of a substance directly into muscle . In medicine , it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications (see route of administration ). Muscles have larger and more blood vessels than subcutaneous tissue and injections here usually have faster rates of absorption than subcutaneous injections or intradermal injections . Depending on the injection site, an administration is limited to between 2 and 5 milliliters of fluid
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Oral Administration
ORAL ADMINISTRATION is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth . PER OS (P.O.) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for medication to be taken orally. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect , reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream , for example. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Scope * 3 Facilitating methods * 4 See also * 5 References TERMINOLOGY"Per os" (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/ ; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions . P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram. These are grammatically incorrect; "os" is a neuter noun of the 3rd declension and thus the accusative case is the same as the nominative case
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Topical Medication
A TOPICAL MEDICATION is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body. Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams , foams , gels , lotions , and ointments. Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical
Topical
medications may also be inhalational , such as asthma medications , or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva , or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth . The word topical derives from Greek τοπικός topikos, "of a place"
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Transdermal
TRANSDERMAL is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution. Examples include transdermal patches used for medicine delivery. CONTENTS* 1 Techniques * 1.1 Obstacles * 1.2 Transdermal
Transdermal
pathways * 1.2.1 Transcellular pathway * 1.2.2 Intercellular pathway * 1.2.3 Microneedles * 1.3 Devices and formulations * 2 References TECHNIQUESOBSTACLESAlthough the skin is a large and logical target for drug delivery, its basic functions limit its utility for this purpose. The skin functions mainly to protect the body from external insults (e.g. harmful substances and microorganisms) and to contain all body fluids. It must be tough, yet flexible enough to allow for movement. The lipids in our skin serve as poor conductors of electricity and can hence protect us from electrical currents if the need so arises
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Metabolism
METABOLISM (from Greek : μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life -sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms . The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins , lipids , nucleic acids , and some carbohydrates , and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes . These enzyme -catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM or INTERMEDIATE METABOLISM
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Hepatic
The LIVER is a vital organ only found in vertebrates . In humans , it is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen , below the diaphragm . The liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification of various metabolites , protein synthesis , and the production of biochemicals necessary for digestion . It also plays a role in metabolism , regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and hormone production. The liver is a gland . It is an accessory digestive gland and produces bile , an alkaline compound which aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids . The gallbladder , a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver. The liver's highly specialized tissue consisting of mostly hepatocytes regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions
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Renal
The KIDNEYS are two bean -shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates . They filter the blood in order to make urine , to release and retain water, and to remove waste and nitrogen (the excretory system ). They also control the ion concentrations and acid-base balance of the blood. Each kidney feeds urine into the bladder by means of a tube known as the ureter . In humans, they are roughly 11 centimetres (4.3 in) in length. The kidneys regulate the balance of ions known as electrolytes in the blood, along with maintaining acid base homeostasis . They also move waste products out of the blood and into the urine, such as nitrogen-containing urea and ammonium . Kidneys also regulate fluid balance and blood pressure . They are also responsible for the reabsorption of water , glucose , and amino acids . The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol and erythropoietin
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Standard State
In chemistry , the STANDARD STATE of a material (pure substance , mixture or solution ) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions. In principle, the choice of standard state is arbitrary, although the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) recommends a conventional set of standard states for general use. IUPAC
IUPAC
recommends using a standard pressure po = 105 Pa . Strictly speaking, temperature is not part of the definition of a standard state. For example, as discussed below, the standard state of a gas is conventionally chosen to be unit pressure (usually in bar) ideal gas , regardless of the temperature. However, most tables of thermodynamic quantities are compiled at specific temperatures, most commonly 298.15 K (25.00 °C; 77.00 °F) or, somewhat less commonly, 273.15 K (0.00 °C; 32.00 °F)
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Endogenous
ENDOGENOUS substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism , tissue , or cell . Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are DNA
DNA
sequences derived from viruses that are ancestrally inserted into the genomes of germ cells . These sequences, which may be fragments of viruses, or entire viral genomes (proviruses ), can persist in the germline , being passed on from one generation to the next as host alleles . Endogenous processes include senescence , the menstrual cycle and the self-sustained circadian rhythms of plants and animals. In some biological systems, endogeneity refers to the recipient of DNA
DNA
(usually in prokaryotes ). However, because of homeostasis , discerning between internal and external influences is often difficult. Endogenous transcription factors refers to those that are manufactured by the cell, as opposed to cloned transcription factors
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Excretion
EXCRETION is the process by which metabolic wastes and other non-useful materials, such as faeces, are eliminated from an organism . In vertebrates this is primarily carried out by the lungs , kidneys and skin . This is in contrast with secretion , where the substance may have specific tasks after leaving the cell . Excretion
Excretion
is an essential process in all forms of life. For example, in mammals urine is expelled through the urethra , which is part of the excretory system . In unicellular organisms , waste products are discharged directly through the surface of the cell. Green plants produce carbon dioxide and water as respiratory products. In green plants, the carbon dioxide released during respiration gets utilized during photosynthesis. Oxygen
Oxygen
is a by product generated during photosynthesis , and exits through stomata , root cell walls, and other routes
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Biological Half-life
The BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE or TERMINAL HALF-LIFE of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite , drug , signalling molecule , radioactive nuclide , or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity. Typically, this refers to the body's cleansing through the function of kidneys and liver in addition to excretion functions to eliminate a substance from the body. In a medical context, half-life may also describe the time it takes for the blood plasma concentration of a substance to halve (plasma half-life) its steady-state. The relationship between the biological and plasma half-lives of a substance can be complex depending on the substance in question, due to factors including accumulation in tissues (protein binding ), active metabolites, and receptor interactions
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