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Progesterone
Progesterone
Progesterone
(P4)[1] is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.[12] It belongs to a group of steroid hormones called the progestogens,[12] and is the major progestogen in the body. Progesterone
Progesterone
has a variety of important functions in the body
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Subcutaneous Injection
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis,[1] the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis. Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering vaccines and medications such as insulin, morphine, diacetylmorphine and goserelin. Subcutaneous, as opposed to intravenous, injection of recreational drugs is referred to as "skin popping". Subcutaneous administration may be abbreviated as SC, SQ, sub-cu, sub-Q, SubQ, or subcut
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Bioavailability
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F ) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. By definition, when a medication is administered intravenously, its bioavailability is 100%.[1] However, when a medication is administered via other routes (such as orally), its bioavailability generallyTH[›] decreases (due to incomplete absorption and first-pass metabolism) or may vary from patient to patient
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Transdermal
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution. Examples include transdermal patches used for medicine delivery.Contents1 Techniques1.1 Obstacles 1.2 Transdermal pathways1.2.1 Transcellular pathway 1.2.2 Intercellular pathway 1.2.3 Microneedles1.3 Devices and formulations2 ReferencesTechniques[edit] Obstacles[edit] Although the skin is a large and logical target for drug delivery, its basic functions limit its utility for this purpose. The skin functions mainly to protect the body from external insults (e.g. harmful substances and microorganisms) and to contain all body fluids. It must be tough, yet flexible enough to allow for movement. The lipids in our skin serve as poor conductors of electricity and can hence protect us from electrical currents if the need so arises. There are two important layers to the human skin: (1) the Epidermis and (2) the Dermis
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Endogenous
Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.[1] Endogenous viral elements are DNA
DNA
sequences derived from viruses that are ancestrally inserted into the genomes of germ cells. These sequences, which may be fragments of viruses or entire viral genomes (proviruses), can persist in the germline, being passed on from one generation to the next as host alleles. Endogenous processes include senescence, the menstrual cycle and the self-sustained circadian rhythms of plants and animals. In some biological systems, endogeneity pertains to the recipient of DNA
DNA
(usually in prokaryotes). However, because of homeostasis, discerning between internal and external influences is often difficult. Endogenous transcription factors are those manufactured by the cell, as distinguished from cloned transcription factors. Etymology[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Intramuscular Injection
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle. In medicine, it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications (see route of administration)
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Chemical Nomenclature
A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book[1] and the Red Book,[2] respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book,[3] describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP), while a fourth, the Gold Book,[4] contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry[5] (the White Book, in association with the IUBMB), analytical chemistry[6] (the Orange Book), macromolecular chemistry[7] (the Purple Book) and clinical chemistry[8] (the Silver Book)
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Implant (medicine)
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure. Medical implants are man-made devices, in contrast to a transplant, which is a transplanted biomedical tissue. The surface of implants that contact the body might be made of a biomedical material such as titanium, silicone, or apatite depending on what is the most functional.[1] In some cases implants contain electronics e.g. artificial pacemaker and cochlear implants
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Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism. The substances of interest include any chemical xenobiotic such as: pharmaceutical drugs, pesticides, food additives, cosmetics, etc. It attempts to analyze chemical metabolism and to discover the fate of a chemical from the moment that it is administered up to the point at which it is completely eliminated from the body. Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetics
is the study of how an organism affects a drug, whereas pharmacodynamics (PD) is the study of how the drug affects the organism
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Plasma Protein Binding
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree medications attach to proteins within the blood. A drug's efficiency may be affected by the degree to which it binds. The less bound a drug is, the more efficiently it can traverse cell membranes or diffuse. Common blood proteins that drugs bind to are human serum albumin, lipoprotein, glycoprotein, and α, β‚ and γ globulins.Contents1 Binding 2 Impact of the altered protein binding2.1 Drug interactions3 Plasma protein binding prediction software 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksBinding[edit] A drug in blood exists in two forms: bound and unbound
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Oral Administration
Oral administration
Oral administration
is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os (P.O.) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for medication to be taken orally. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect, reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream, for example.[1]Contents1 Terminology 2 Scope 3 Facilitating methods 4 See also 5 ReferencesTerminology[edit] "Per os" (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions. P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram
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Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Hepatic
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.[2][3][4] In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm. Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.[4] The liver is an accessory digestive gland that produces bile, an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat. Bile aids in digestion via the emulsification of lipids
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CYP2C9
1OG2, 1OG5, 1R9O, 4NZ2IdentifiersAliases CYP2C9, CPC9, CYP2C, CYP2C10, CYPIIC9, P450IIC9, cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 9, Cytochrome P450
Cytochrome P450
2C9External IDs OMIM: 601130 MGI: 1919553 HomoloGene: 133566 GeneCards: CYP2C9EC number 1.14.13.48 Gene
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3α-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase
2FVLIdentifiersAliases AKR1C4, 3-alpha-HSD, C11, CDR, CHDR, DD-4, DD4, HAKRA, aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C4, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4External IDs MGI: 1933427 HomoloGene: 84695 GeneCards: AKR1C4EC number 1.1.1.225 Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
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Biological Half-life
The biological half-life or terminal half-life of a substance is the time it takes for a substance (for example a metabolite, drug, signalling molecule, radioactive nuclide, or other substance) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.[1] Typically, this refers to the body's cleansing through the function of kidneys and liver in addition to excretion functions to eliminate a substance from the body. In a medical context, half-life may also describe the time it takes for the blood plasma concentration of a substance to halve (plasma half-life) its steady-state
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