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Poxviridae
Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Cervidpoxvirus    Crocodylipoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Alphaentomopoxvirus    Betaentomopoxvirus    Gammaentomopoxvirus Poxviridae
Poxviridae
is a family of viruses. Humans, vertebrates, and arthropods serve as natural hosts. There are currently 69 species in this family, divided among 28 genera, which are divided into two subfamilies. Diseases associated with this family include smallpox.[1][2] Four genera of poxviruses may infect humans: orthopoxvirus, parapoxvirus, yatapoxvirus, molluscipoxvirus
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Nanometre
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA viruses)
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Glycosaminoglycan
Glycosaminoglycans[1] (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides[2] are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating unit (except for keratan) consists of an amino sugar ( N-acetylglucosamine
N-acetylglucosamine
or N-acetylgalactosamine) along with a uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose.[3] Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/diˈɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˈkliːɪk, -ˈkleɪ.ɪk/ ( listen);[1] DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA
DNA
and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA
DNA
molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA
DNA
strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.[2][3] Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group
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Pigeonpox Virus
Pigeon pox is a viral disease to which pigeons are susceptible.[1] There is a live viral vaccine available (ATCvet code: QI01ED01 (WHO)). Pigeon pox is caused by a virus that is spread by mosquitoes and dirty water but not in droppings. The disease causes pox scabs to form around the bird's face, mouth and feet.[2] References[edit]^ Pigeon Aid UK ^ http://www.pigeon-aid.org.uk/pa/html/pigeon_pox.phpThis virus-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about a disease, disorder, or medical condition is a stub
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Cell Nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin
Latin
nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA
DNA
molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell
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Chickenpox
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).[3] The disease results in a characteristic skin rash that forms small, itchy blisters, which eventually scab over.[1] It usually starts on the chest, back, and face then spreads to the rest of the body.[1] Other symptoms may include fever, tiredness, and headaches.[1] Symptoms usually last five to seven days.[1] Complications may occasionally include pneumonia, inflammation of the brain, and bacterial skin infections.[6] The disease is often more severe in adults than in children.[7] Symptoms begin 10 to 21 days after exposure to the virus.[2] Chickenpox
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Rudiviridae
Rudivirus is a genus of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales; it is the only genus in the family Rudiviridae. These viruses are non-enveloped, stiff-rod-shaped viruses with linear dsDNA genomes, that infect hyperthermophilic archaea of the kingdom Crenarchaeota.[2][3] There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Sulfolobus
Sulfolobus
islandicus rod-shaped virus 2.[1][4] The family name derives from the Latin
Latin
rudis, thin rod, referring to the virion shape.Contents1 Details 2 Structure 3 Genome 4 Transcriptional Patterns and Transcription Regulation 5 Viral life cycle 6 Potential applications in Nanotechnology 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksDetails[edit]Main species Sulfolobus
Sulfolobus
islandicus rod-shaped virus 1, SIRV1; genome sequence accession no
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Rhinovirus
The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", gen ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold. Rhinovirus infection proliferates in temperatures between 33–35 °C (91–95 °F), the temperatures found in the nose. Rhinoviruses is a genus within the Picornaviridae family of viruses. There are currently around 160 recognized types of human rhinoviruses that differ according to their surface proteins (serotypes).[1] They are lytic in nature and are among the smallest viruses, with diameters of about 30 nanometers
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Asfarviridae
Asfarviridae is a family of double stranded viruses. There are two genera in this family. These are the Asfarivirus and the Faustovirus. The Asfaravirus infect insects and swine and the Faustavirus infects amoebae.Contents1 Asfarivirus 2 Taxonomy 3 Virology 4 Life cycle 5 Epidemiology 6 References 7 External linksAsfarivirus[edit] The viruses in the Asfivirus genus infects swine, resulting in an onset of African swine fever
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Phycodnaviridae
Phycodnaviridae
Phycodnaviridae
is a family of large (100–560kb) double stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that infect marine or freshwater eukaryotic algae. Viruses within this family are similar morphologically and possess an icosohedral capsid (polyhedron with 20 faces). There are currently 33 species in this family, divided among 6 genera.[1][2] This family belongs to a super-group of large viruses known as nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs). Recently, there is evidence that specific strains of Phycodnaviridae
Phycodnaviridae
may infect humans rather than just algal species, as was previously believed.[3] Most genera under this family enter the cell of the host by cell receptor endocytosis and replicate in the nucleus. Phycodnaviridae
Phycodnaviridae
play important ecological roles by regulating the growth and productivity of their algal hosts
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Herpesvirus
Subfamily: AlphaherpesvirinaeIltovirus Mardivirus Simplexvirus VaricellovirusSubfamily: BetaherpesvirinaeCytomegalovirus Muromegalovirus Proboscivirus RoseolovirusSubfamily: GammaherpesvirinaeLymphocryptovirus Macavirus Percavirus RhadinovirusHerpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.[1][2][3] The members of this family are also known as herpesviruses. The family name is derived from the Greek word herpein ("to creep"), referring to the latent, recurring infections typical of this group of viruses. Herpesviridae can cause latent or lytic infections. At least five species of Herpesviridae – HSV-1 and HSV-2 (both of which can cause orolabial herpes and genital herpes), varicella zoster virus (the cause of chickenpox and shingles), Epstein–Barr virus (implicated in several diseases, including mononucleosis and some cancers), and cytomegalovirus – are extremely widespread among humans
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Myxoma Virus
Myxoma virus is a virus that causes myxomatosis in rabbits and was used as a pest control in Australia.Contents1 Structure 2 Genome 3 Infection and pathology3.1 Pathology in rabbits4 ReferencesStructure[edit] Virions are enveloped, and have a surface membrane with lateral bodies. The envelope contains host-derived lipids and self-synthesized glycolipids. They are brick-shaped and about 250 nanometers in diameter, 300 nm in length and 200 nm in height. The middle contains a biconcave core which appears to be characteristic to many poxviruses. Genome[edit]Evolution history of the myxoma virus[1]The genome is nonsegmented and contains a single molecule of linear double-stranded DNA, 160,000 nucleotides in length
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Varicella Zoster
Varicella zoster virus or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans. It causes chickenpox (varicella), a disease most commonly affecting children, teens, and young adults, and herpes zoster (shingles) in older adults; shingles is rare in children. VZV is a worldwide pathogen known by many names: chickenpox virus, varicella virus, zoster virus, and human herpesvirus type 3 (HHV-3). VZV infections are species-specific to humans, but can survive in external environments for a few hours, maybe a day or two.[1] VZV multiplies in the lungs, and causes a wide variety of symptoms. After the primary infection (chickenpox), the virus goes dormant in the nerves, including the cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ganglia, and autonomic ganglia
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Canarypox Virus
Canarypox virus (CNPV) is an Avipoxvirus and etiologic agent of canarypox, a disease of wild and captive birds that can cause significant losses. Canarypox can enter human cells, but it cannot survive and multiply in human cells.[1] There is a live viral vaccine available which may have beneficial properties against human cancer when used as a mammalian expression vector.[2] (ATCvet code: QI01KD01 (WHO))
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