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Polypodiopsida
LEPTOSPORANGIATE FERNS are the largest group of living ferns , including some 11000 species worldwide. They constitute the subclass Polypodiidae , but are often considered to be the class PTERIDOPSIDA or POLYPODIOPSIDA, although other classifications assign them a different rank. The leptosporangiate ferns are one of the four major groups of ferns, with the other three being the Eusporangiate ferns comprising the marattioid ferns (Marattiidae, Marattiaceae ), the horsetails (Equisetiidae, Equisetaceae ), and whisk ferns and moonworts . There are approximately 8465 species of living leptosporangiate ferns, compared with about 2070 for all other ferns, totalling 10535 species of ferns. Almost a third of leptosporangiate fern species are epiphytes . These ferns are called leptosporangiate because their sporangia arise from a single epidermal cell and not from a group of cells as in eusporangiate ferns (a polyphyletic lineage)
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Epiphyte
An EPIPHYTE is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, water (in marine environments) or from debris accumulating around it. Epiphytes take part in nutrient cycles and add to both the diversity and biomass of the ecosystem in which they occur like any other organism. They are an important source of food for many species. Typically, the older parts of a plant will have more epiphytes growing on them. Epiphytes differ from parasites in that epiphytes grow on other plants for physical support and do not necessarily negatively affect the host. An epiphytic organism that is not a plant is sometimes called an epibiont . Epiphytes are usually found in the temperate zone (e.g., many mosses , liverworts , lichens , and algae ) or in the tropics (e.g., many ferns , cacti , orchids , and bromeliads ). Epiphyte
Epiphyte
species make good houseplants due to their minimal water and soil requirements
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Whisk Ferns
PSILOTUM is a genus of fern -like vascular plants , commonly known as WHISK FERNS. It is one of two genera in the family Psilotaceae , the other being Tmesipteris . Plants in these two genera were once thought to be descended from the earliest surviving vascular plants , but more recent phylogenies place them as basal ferns, as a sister group to Ophioglossales . They lack true roots and leaves, the stems being the organs containing conducting tissue. There are only two species in Psilotum and a hybrid between the two. They differ from those in Tmesipteris in having stems with many branches and a synangium with three lobes rather than two. CONTENTS * 1 Description and life cycle * 2 Taxonomy and naming * 3 Species and distribution * 4 Relation to ferns * 5 References DESCRIPTION AND LIFE CYCLEWhisk ferns in the genus Psilotum lack true roots but are anchored by creeping rhizomes
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Equisetaceae
Equisetum
Equisetum
†Equisetites EQUISETACEAE, sometimes called the HORSETAIL FAMILY, is the only extant family of the order Equisetales , with one surviving genus, Equisetum
Equisetum
, which comprises about twenty species. EVOLUTION AND SYSTEMATICS Equisetaceae
Equisetaceae
is the only surviving family of the Equisetales , a group with many fossils of large tree-like plants that possessed ribbed stems similar to modern horsetails. Pseudobornia is the oldest known relative of Equisetum; it grew in the late Devonian
Devonian
, about 375 million years ago and is assigned to its own order. All living horsetails are placed in the genus Equisetum
Equisetum

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Horsetails
See text EQUISETUM (/ˌɛkwɪˈsiːtəm/ ; HORSETAIL, SNAKE GRASS, PUZZLEGRASS) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae , a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds. Equisetum
Equisetum
is a "living fossil " as it is the only living genus of the entire class Equisetopsida
Equisetopsida
, which for over one hundred million years was much more diverse and dominated the understory of late Paleozoic forests. Some Equisetopsida
Equisetopsida
were large trees reaching to 30 meters tall. The genus Calamites of the family Calamitaceae , for example, is abundant in coal deposits from the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period
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Sporangium
A SPORANGIUM (pl., SPORANGIA ) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed. It can be composed of a single cell or can be multicellular. All plants , fungi , and many other lineages form sporangia at some point in their life cycle. Sporangia can produce spores by mitosis , but in nearly all land plants and many fungi, sporangia are the site of meiosis and produce genetically distinct haploid spores. CONTENTS * 1 Fungi * 2 Land plants * 2.1 Eusporangia and leptosporangia * 2.2 Synangium * 3 Internal structures * 4 See also * 5 References FUNGI THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (August 2016)Structure containing the spores in fungal species. LAND PLANTSIn mosses, liverworts and hornworts, an unbranched sporophyte produces a single sporangium, which may be quite complex morphologically
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Indusium
A SORUS (pl. sori) is a cluster of sporangia (structures producing and containing spores ) in ferns and fungi . This New Latin
New Latin
word is from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σωρός (sōrós ‘stack, pile, heap’). In fungi and lichens , the SORUS is surrounded by an external layer. In some red algae it may take the form of a depression into the thallus. In ferns , these form a yellowish or brownish mass on the edge or underside of a fertile frond . In some species, they are protected during development by a scale or film of tissue called the INDUSIUM, which forms an umbrella-like cover. Sori occur on the sporophyte generation, the sporangia within producing haploid meiospores . As the sporongia mature, the indusium shrivels so that spore release is unimpeded. The sporangia then burst and release the spores. The shape, arrangement, and location of the sori are often valuable clues in the identification of fern taxa
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Cyatheaceae
Cnemidaria Cyathea
Cyathea
× Cyathidaria Alsophila Sphaeropteris
Sphaeropteris
†Alsophilocaulis †Cibotiocaulis †Cyatheocaulis †Oguracaulis SYNONYMS * Alsophilaceae Presl, 1847The CYATHEACEAE are the scaly tree fern family and include the world's tallest tree ferns, which reach heights up to 20 m. They are also very ancient plants, appearing in the fossil record in the late Jurassic , though the modern genera likely appeared in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
. Cyatheaceae
Cyatheaceae
are the largest family of tree ferns, including about 500 species. Cyatheaceae
Cyatheaceae
and Dicksoniaceae
Dicksoniaceae
, together with Metaxyaceae and Cibotiaceae , are a monophyletic group and constitute the "core tree ferns"
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Annulus (botany)
An ANNULUS in botany is an arc or a ring of specialized cells on the sporangium . These cells are arranged in a single row, and are associated with the release or dispersal of spores. FERNS Sporangium of Polypodium vulgare with annulus on the right. In leptosporangiate ferns, the annulus located on the outer rim of the sporangium and serves in spore dispersal . It consists typically of a ring or belt of dead water-filled cells with differentially thickened cell walls that stretches about two-thirds around each sporangium in leptosporangiate ferns . The thinner walls on the outside allow water to evaporate quickly under dry conditions. This dehiscence causes the cells to shrink and a contraction and straightening of the annulus ring, eventually rupturing the sporangial wall by ripping apart thin-walled lip cells on the opposite side of the sporangium
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Sorus
A SORUS (pl. sori) is a cluster of sporangia (structures producing and containing spores ) in ferns and fungi . This New Latin
New Latin
word is from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σωρός (sōrós ‘stack, pile, heap’). In fungi and lichens , the SORUS is surrounded by an external layer. In some red algae it may take the form of a depression into the thallus. In ferns , these form a yellowish or brownish mass on the edge or underside of a fertile frond . In some species, they are protected during development by a scale or film of tissue called the INDUSIUM, which forms an umbrella-like cover. Sori occur on the sporophyte generation, the sporangia within producing haploid meiospores . As the sporongia mature, the indusium shrivels so that spore release is unimpeded. The sporangia then burst and release the spores. The shape, arrangement, and location of the sori are often valuable clues in the identification of fern taxa
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Marattiaceae
The order MARATTIALES is a group of pteridophyta containing the single family, MARATTIACEAE. with six extant genera and a total of c. 135 known species. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Classification * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONThe Marattiaceae
Marattiaceae
diverged from other ferns very early in their evolutionary history and are quite different from many plants familiar to people in temperate zones . Many of them have massive, fleshy rootstocks and the largest known fronds of any fern. The Marattiaceae is one of two groups of ferns traditionally known as eusporangiate fern , meaning that the sporangium is formed from a group of cells vs the leptosporangium in which there is a single initial cell
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Moonwort
Several, see text BOTRYCHIUM is a genus of ferns , seedless vascular plants in the family Ophioglossaceae . Botrychium
Botrychium
species are known as MOONWORTS. They are small, with fleshy roots , and reproduce by spores shed into the air. One part of the leaf, the trophophore, is sterile and fernlike; the other, the sporophore, is fertile and carries the clusters of sporangia or spore cases. Some species only occasionally emerge above ground and gain most of their nourishment from an association with mycorrhizal fungi . They are unusual among tracheophytes ("higher plants") in that at least some species produce the sugar trehalose . The circumscription of Botrychium
Botrychium
is disputed between different authors; some botanists include the genera Botrypus and Sceptridium within Botrychium, while others treat them as distinct. The latter treatment is provisionally followed here
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Adiantaceae
ADIANTACEAE (as construed here, sensu stricto, not a synonym of Pteridaceae) is a family of ferns in the order Pteridales . This includes the family formerly known as the "Vittariaceae." Recent genetic analyses based on chloroplast genes demonstrate that the vittarioid ferns cladistically nest within the genus Adiantum
Adiantum
, making that genus paraphyletic. Adiantum
Adiantum
lunulatum in Goa
Goa
, India
India
The vittarioid ferns are primarily epiphytic in tropical regions and all have simple leaves with sori that follow the veins and lack true indusia ; the sori are most often marginal with a false indusium formed from the reflexed leaf margin. The family also includes a species, Vittaria appalachiana , that is highly unusual in that the sporophyte stage of the life cycle is absent
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Ceratopteridaceae
CERATOPTERIDACEAE is an improper family name for the clade that is now known to include the two genera Ceratopteris
Ceratopteris
and Acrostichum . Although Ceratopteris
Ceratopteris
was long isolated under its own family, due to adaptations for a dedicated aquatic existence, recent genetic study has determined that these two genera are allied. The correct name for this taxon at the level of family is Parkeriaceae . Christenhusz et al., 2011, included these two genera alone in the subfamily Ceratopteridoideae (the correct name at the level of subfamily) in their larger treatment of the Pteridaceae family in the order Polypodiales . REFERENCES * ^ Christenhusz et al., 2011 Maarten J. M
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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